Koncept fenoménu v regionální diverzit vegetace (literární reśerśe

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Koncept fenoménu v regionální diverzit vegetace (literární reśerśe
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f) fenomén sutí
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toky a bohatou vegetací vodních makrofyt. Vysoká je také beta-diversita a diversita vegetace jako
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Jak ukazují zejména archeologické poznatky z poslední doby (Cílek et Kopecký, v tisku), byly
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kryté plochy, zatímco rozpadem skal se pod skalními výchozy hromadí osypy sutí s projevy fenoménu
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4
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GRNXPHQWXMHYýHVNpPNUDVX/RåHNQD3iODY/RåHN5R]KRGXMtFtPREGREtPE\O
VXEERUHiONG\GRãORNGUXKRWQpPXRGOHVRYiQtNUDMLQ\/RåHNFRåQDSRPRKORXFKRYiQtVWHSt
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6 YiSHQFRYêPL REODVWPL MH VSRMHQ SUHKLVWRULFNê L KLVWRULFNê YêYRM FLYLOL]DFH 7åED YiSHQF$
SDUDGR[Q SLVSOD N WYRUE G\QDPLFNpKR UHOLpIX RGNUêYiQtP ORPRYêFK VWQ D GLVWXUEDQFt /RåHN
1980, Sádlo 1983).
V zemích, kde jsou rozsáhlejší dolomitové oblasti, byl popsán dolomitový fenomén (Gams 1928,
/RåHND5R]SDGGRORPLW$MHRGOLãQêRGI\]LNiOQtKRLFKHPLFNpKRUR]SDGXYiSHQF$WDNåH
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DåWR[LFN\
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jílovce (slíny).
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3tNODGHP ]DFKRYDOpKR UHOLpIX NtGRYêFK KRUQLQ MH RSXNRYi WDEXOH 'åEiQX QDGP YêãND P
SHYêãHQt P UR]EUi]GQi URYQREåQRX VHYHURYêFKRGQ RULHQWRYDQRX ~GROQt VtWt 3HGVWDYXMH
VYpUi]QRX D Y UiPFL þHVNp NtGRYp WDEXOH RMHGLQORX NUDMLQX NWHUi Y G$VOHGNX VUiåNRYpKR VWtQX
QHSRGOHKOD GRVXG WDNRYpPX RGQRVX MDNR RVWDWQt ~]HPt /RåHN 2SXNRYp VNiO\ D VNDOQt KUDQ\
WYRtYNtGRYpWDEXOLVSHFLILFNiVWDQRYLãWVUHOLNWQtELRWRX0NNpVOtQ\YSRGORåtSURSXVWQêFKRSXN
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RGODPXMH Y StNUêFK VWQiFK 1D RSXNRYêFK KUDQiFK SHWUYiYDMt SFKDYLQ\ V UHOLNWQtPL GUXK\
0HFKDQLVPXV YWUiQt RSXN D VHVXY$ Y\VYWOXMH PRåQRVW ]DFKRYiQt UHOLNWQtKR EH]OHVt QDS
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9HJHWDFHVHVXYQêFK~]HPtRGSRYtGiStURGQtPSRGPtQNiPSHVWRQHERSUiYSURWRNOX]QiSORFKD
EêYi]S$VREHQD]YRGQOêPMtORYêPKRUL]RQWHPSURMHYXMtFtPVHSUDPHQ\SLYêFKR]HFKYUVWHYH[LVWXMt
GREUp I\WRLQGLNiWRU\ VHVXYQêFK ~]HPt QDS Equisetum telmateia) a sesuvy se projevují také
ãDYORYLWêPWYDUHPNPHQ$GHYLQ6êNRUD/
9HJHWDFL D VSHFLILFNRX G\QDPLNX HUR]QtKR UHOLpIX Y\WYRHQpKR QD WXILWLFNêFK PLRFHQQtFK MtOHFK Y
VHPLDULGQtPSRGQHEtVUiåNRYGHILFLWQtKR~]HPtQDäDWHFNXSRSVDO-HQtNE
––––––––––=YOiãWQtP SURMHYHP MtORYFRYêFK D StVNRYFRYêFK XVD]HQLQ YQMãtKR IO\ãRYpKR SiVPD NDUSDWVNp
soustavy je flyšový fenomén+ODYQtPIDNWRUHPSLVStYDMtFtPNHY]QLNXVYpUi]QpKRHUR]QtKRUHOLpIXMH
UR]GtOQi RGROQRVW VpULt YUVWHY IO\ãH 1iFK\OQMãt NH ]YWUiYiQt MH MtORYFRYi IDFLH StVNRYFRYi MH
RGROQMãt &KDUDNWHULVWLFNê IO\ãRYê UHOLpI MH UR]þOHQQ QD VRXVWDY\ HUR]QtFK EUi]G D QD VRXVWDY\
Y\SUHSDURYDQêFKYUFK$DKEHW$=RXEHNHW.XQVNê
––––––––––/RNiOQtRERKDFHQtS$G\NDOFLXPNDUERQiWHP]HVSUDãt S$VREt sprašový fenomén projevující se u nás
MHQIUDJPHQWiUQQDVSUDãRYêFKYêVWXSHFKLYREODVWHFKQHYiSHQFRYêFKKRUQLQ6SUDãHMVRXHROLFNpKR
5
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.ROtQVNRDWS/RåHNLQ=RXEHNHW.XQVNê8FKRYiYDMtIRVLOQtPNNêãtIDXQXWDNåHMVRX]FHOD
QH]DVWXSLWHOQpSURNYDUWpUQtVWUDWLJUDILL/RåHN
1.4. Neovulkanitový fenomén MH Y\YLQXW Y REODVWHFK WHWLKRUQt VRSHþQp þLQQRVWL 6RSHþQp SRFKRG\
VRXYLVHMtVSHPLV"RYiQtPPDJPDWLFNêFKKPRWSO\Q$DYRG\QD]HPVNêSRYUFK=JOREiOQtKRKOHGLVND
Pi YOLY D Yê]QDP þLQQêFK VRSHN QD XWYiHQt D GLYHUVLWX YHJHWDFH ]FHOD RGOLãQê Yê]QDP ]SUDYLGOD
SHGVWDYXMtFt GLVWXUEDQFL þL ~SOQRX GHVWUXNFL 3URWR MH QD PtVW YH VWHGQt (YURS KRYRLW VStãH R
IHQRPpQXVRSHþQpKRUHVSYXONDQLFNpKRJHRUHOLpIX'HPHN7\SLFNpSRYUFKRYpVRSHþQpWYDU\
MVRXOiYRYiWDEXOHVYGHFNêYUFKVWUDWRYXONiQOiYRYêSURXGNDOGHUDDVRSRXFK.OLPDV]HZVNL
1HRYXONDQLFNê UHOLpI MH Y ý5 ]DVWRXSHQ GYPD VRXYLVOêPL SRKRtPL ýHVNêP VWHGRKRtP D
'RXSRYVNêPLKRUDPLNWHUpMVRX]E\WNHPREURYVNpNDOGHU\9LWiVHN2VWDWQtQHRYXONDQLW\WYRt
RMHGLQOpYUFK\QNWHUp]FHODRVDPRFHQp9WãLQXRVDPRFHQêFKYUFK$QDREYRGXýHVNpKRVWHGRKRt
WYRt Y\SUHSDURYDQp åtO\ QHER ODNROLW\ WHG\ SRGSRYUFKRYp YXONDQLW\ .XQVNê LQ =RXEHN HW .XQVNê
1968).
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6NDOLFNê HW 6NDOLFNi 6URYQiQt S$GQtFK SRPU$ D YHJHWDFH QD VSLOLWHFK D SURWHUR]RLFNêFK
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WHSOp VYDKRYp ]yQ\ V H[WUpPQtPL SRGPtQNDPL -= VYDK ± YH YêãFH P QP V YêUD]Q
NRQWLQHQWiOQtP FKRGHP PH]RNOLPDWX GRORåHQ YêVN\W DG\ GUXK$ V NRQWLQHQWiOQtP UR]ãtHQtP SRK\EPDVY]GXFKXVYê]QDPQêPQiYWUQêPD]iYWUQêPHIHNWHPDYtFHVUiåHNQD9]iYWUQpPVYDKX
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VNDOQtFK WYDUHFK Y\VRNp VWDQRYLãWQt SHVWURVWL GDQp NRQFHQWUDFt H[WUpPQtFK SRGPtQHN QD UHODWLYQ
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6
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þiVW YUFKRORYê IHQRPpQ 9\VRNp NRQFHQWUDFH UHOLNWQtFK GUXK$ GRVDKXMH QDS 5DOVNR P QP
3HWtþHN HW 6êNRUD QD þHGLþRYêFK VNDOiFK Aster alpinus a Woodsia ilvensis, na výchozech
YiSQLWêFKStVNRYF$Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi a Carex pediformis subsp. macroura.
1.5. Hadcový fenomén MDNR VRXERU I\]LNiOQtFK D FKHPLFNêFK YODVWQRVWt VHUSHQWLQLW$ MHå VYêP
PLQHUiOQtP VORåHQtP ]S$VREHP ]YWUiYiQt WHSHOQêP UHåLPHP L YOKNRVWt VH Yê]QDPQ RGOLãXMt RG
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UR]GtORGSHGFKR]tFKVHQHMHGQiRIHQRPpQY\VYWOXMtFtUHJLRQiOQtGLYHUVLWXDOHVStãHORNiOQtFRåMH
GiQRYêVN\WHPDUR]ORKRXKDGFRYêFKWOHVYNRPSOH[HFKPHWDPRUIRYDQêFK KRUQLQ 3$G\ QD KDGFtFK
MVRXGtN\GREUpSURSXVWQRVWLYRG\VXFKpPDMtPtUQDONDOLFNRXUHDNFLDREVDKXMtPQRåVWYtWR[LFNpKR
0J&2 1RYiN 7R MH G$YRGHP Yê]QDPQp I\WRLQGLNDFH REOLJiWQtPL VHUSHQWLQRI\W\ D
VHUSHQWLQRPRUIy]DPL 6êNRUD / D FHONRYêP VQtåHQtP NRQNXUHQFH D HGDILFNRX VHOHNFt WD[RQ$
3LUR]HQê YHJHWDþQt SRNU\Y WYRt DFLGRILOQt UHOLNWQt YHVRYFRYp ERU\ 6ODYNRYVNê OHV 'RPLQ Hejtmánek 1954), na hadcových rendzinách u Mohelna teplomilné hadcové doubravy a hadcové
reliktní bory (Chytrý et Vicherek 1996) doprovázené na skalních výchozech reliktní xerotermní
YHJHWDFtQDGQHV]þiVWL]DWRSHQêFKKDGFtFKX'ROQtFK.UDORYLFMHUHOLNWQtYHJHWDFHýHUQRKRUVNê
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9HVHOê6ODYtNRYi3RVOHGQtGYORNDOLW\MVRXE\O\RYOLYRYiQ\WDNptþQtPIHQRPpQHP
1HMYê]QDPQMãt KDGFRYi ORNDOLWD X 0RKHOQD VL ]DVORXåt SR]RUQRVW ] KOHGLVND YOLYX YRGQt QiGUåH
0RKHOQR-HQtNXSR]RUQLOQD]PQ\PH]RNOLPDWX]S$VREHQp]YOKþHQtPDRFKOD]HQtPY]GXFKXD
RGKDGO VQtåHQt SU$PUQêFK URþQtFK WHSORW Då R & FI NOLPDWLFNi PHQt 4XLWW 7DWR
RFHDQL]DFHNOLPDWXPODPtWGOHSHGSRYGL]DQiVOHGHN]DU$VWiQtNRYLQDPLFRåVH WDNp SRWYUGLOR
(Hanzl et Kaupová 1994).
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jednak na orientaci (max. teploty na jihozápadním svahu), jednak na vzdálenosti od vodní hladiny.
'HQQt FKRG WHSORW Y\ND]XMH PD[LPiOQt YêN\Y\ QD MLåQtP VYDKX Y MHKR KRUQt þiVWL 1HMPHQãt YêN\Y\
MVRX QD SORãLQ QDG ~GROtP 3HKUDG\ YRGQt KPRWD S$VREt MDNR WHSHOQê UH]HUYRiU WXWR WHSORWQt
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stepi Klaudisová (1979).
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SRS VX"RYp MDYRLQ\ þL EXþLQ\ QD VOXQQêFK SDN SRGOH FKDUDNWHUX SRGORåt VXE[HURILOQt GRXEUDY\ V
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9 OLWHUDWXH VH þDVWR VHWNiYiPH V údolním fenoménem 7RWR R]QDþHQt O]H DNFHSWRYDW SUR SURMHY\
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mezohumidní a (iii) (xero)acidní vrcholový fenomén.
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IHQRPpQXYQLåãtFKSRORKiFKMDNRSVHXGRDOSLQVNpSLMDWY QDãt GRPiFt OLWHUDWXH MLå QD NRQFL OHW
Klášterským a posléze i dalšími autory.
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masívu Plechého viz Votýpka 1981).
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kary (Šebesta et Treml 1976) a projevuje se karový fenomén (Jeník 1961).
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VQKX WUiYQtN\ WWLQ\ Crepido-Calamagrostietum villosae), na sešlapávaných místech smilkové
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kopce Lhota (560 m n.m.) roste dymnivková habrová doubrava s humikolními hájovými a nitrofilními
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VWHGRYNêFKKUDG$GRNRQFHNORNiOQtPXRVWU$YNRYLWpPXRERKDFHQtELRW\QD]GHFKVXSOXMtFtFKVNDOQt
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horský mezohumidní (xero)acidní
Klimatické
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nepropustné jílové sedimenty, rašeliny a slatiny; (5) váté písky a duny, sprašové hlíny; (6) vcelku
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1998).
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jsou obohacené dusíkem (.....).
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12
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1.10. Ekologické fenomény v krajinných systémech mohou být zdrojem lokální (regionální)
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glaciálu a s postupným oteplováním klimatu se stáhly na sever a do hor. Dalším typem jsou xerotermní
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13
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2.1. Horské – lavinové dráhy, kary, atd.
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Wagnerová et Šírová 1971, Sýkora et Štursa 1973, Kubát 1974, Jeník et al. 1980, Wagnerová 1993) na
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Salicion albae.
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2.3. Skalní výchozy
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URVWRX VSROHþHQVWYD VY Androsacion alpinae, Stipion calamagrostis, na skalách Hypno-Polypodion
vulgaris DDGDGDOãtFKW\S$YL]6êNRUD76iGORHW.ROEHN1DVNDOQtFKYêFKR]HFKURVWRX
VNDOQt VWHSL VYD]$ Alysso-Festucion pallentis, Seslerio-Festucion pallentis, Asplenio cuneifoliiArmerion serpentini9HJHWDFHNHtþN$VYGenistion, Euphorbio-Callunion a Vaccinion (viz Sýkora T.
REVD]XMH GUXKRWQ L SDVHN\ SRS Y\WYit GUXKRWQp W\S\ YHVRYLã" 6SROHþHQVWYD PONêFK
VNDOQtFK S$G SDWt NH VY Arabidopsion thalianae, Hyperico perforati-Scleranthion perennis, Alysso
alyssoidis-Sedion albi )UDJPHQW\ Y\VRNRVWpEHOQêFK QLY WYRt Y QLåãtFK SRORKiFK RFKX]HQi
VSROHþHQVWYDFI&K\WUêWMulgedio-Aconitetea, resp. subtermofilních niv sv. Calamagrostion
arundinaceae a na skalách sv. Lilio-Vaccinion 6êNRUD71D]QDþHQiNRPSOH[LWDVSROHþHQVWHY
RWHYHQpKRUHOLpIX6êNRUD7EDDEVHQFHJHRERWDQLFNpW\SRORJLHYHJHWDFHVNDO6êNRUD7
XND]XMtQDQXWQRVWHãHQtRWi]N\skalního fenoménu (sensu Sádlo 1996b) jako komplexního fenoménu
S$VREtFtKR Y UiPFL YãHFK SRSVDQêFK HNRORJLFNêFK IHQRPpQ$ D SLVStYDMtFtKR N H[LVWHQFL
FKDUDNWHULVWLFNp PR]DLN\ UHOLNWQtFK VSROHþHQVWHY QDS .Otþ ± 6êNRUD 7 5DOVNR ± 3HWtþHN HW
6êNRUD %H]G]\ ± .ROEHN HW 3HWtþHN %RH ± 6iGOR E 1D VNDOQtFK KUDQiFK D
H[WUpPQtFKVWDQRYLãWtFKNGHXåQHPRKRXU$VWVWURP\URVWRXSULPiUQtVSROHþHQVWYDNHtþN$6êNRUD7
1972), zpravidla na kontaktu s reliktními bory a zakrslými doubravami.
8UþLWê Qi]QDN SR]RUQRVWL YQRYDQê VXE[HURILOQtP D DFLGRILOQtP GRXEUDYiP VNDOQtFK YêFKR]$ D
UHOLNWQtPERU$PXND]XMtQRYSRSVDQiVSROHþHQVWYD&K\WUêHW9LFKHUHN&K\WUêHW+RUiN
––––––––
15
3RMHPVWHSMH]GHSRXåLWYQHMãLUãtPVORYDVP\VOXMDNRY\MiGHQtIRUPDFHVXFKRE\WQêFKQt]NêFK
WUDYLQGRSURYi]HQêFKNYWQDWêPLWUYDONDPLDHIHPHUQtPLMHGQROHWNDPL-HQtNHW/RåHN
––––––––
2.4. Reliktní bory
5HOLNWQt ERU\ SHGVWDYXMt SRORRWHYHQi VSROHþHQVWYD Yi]DQi QD VWDQRYLãW QD VNDOQtFK YêFKR]HFK þL
SUXGNêFKVOXQQêFKVYD]tFKVNDOQtIHQRPpQ6SROHþHQVWYDMVRXVSHFLILFNiSRGOHSRGORåQtKRUQLQ\VY
Erico-Pinion, Dicrano-Pinion -HGQi VH R Y\KUDQQi ORNiOQ HQGHPLFNi VSROHþHQVWYD YL] QDS
0LN\ãNDNWHUiGRNXPHQWXMtKRUQLQRYRXGLYHU]LILNDFLH[WUpPQtFKYHJHWDþQtFKW\S$DSUROtQDMtVH
s lokální xerotermní vegetací:
as. Cytiso-Pinetum RSXNDýNtGRYpWDEXOH
spol. s Festuca pallens (Erico-PineteaMLåQtýHFK\6êNRUD7
spol. se Sesleria varia (Erico-Pinetea, Pokratice, Sýkora T. 1981, SUDYGSRGREQWRWRåQpVDVCytisoPinetum)
as. Peucedano-Pinetum Matuszkiewicz 1962 (Pulsatillo-Pinetea+UDGþDQVNiSORãLQD6êNRUD7
as. Cladonio rangiferinae-Pinetum sylvestris VW%HURXQND
as. Hieracio pallidi-Pinetum VWHGQt3RYOWDYtGROQt3RRWDYt6WHOD%HURXQND
as. Betulo carpaticae-Pinetum (Šumava, Broumovsko, Brdy)
as. Asplenio cuneifolii-Pinetum KDGFH=-DVWýHFKDý0YUFKRYLQ\"±&K\WUê~VWQtVGO
as. Thlaspio montani-Pinetum sylvestris &K\WUê0RKHOHQVNpKDGFHäHOLYND
as. Cardaminopsio petraeae-Pinetum +EOHW+RO]QHUJUDQXOLW\UXO\-9RNUDMýHVNpKRPDVtYX
spol. Armeria elongata-Pinus sylvestris (Toman 1973, Terezínská kotlina)
2.5. Acidofilní stepi
$FLGRILOQt VWHSL QDYD]XMt QD VNDOQt YHJHWDFL SRSVDQRX YêãH -HGQi VH R SURVWRURY QHStOLã UR]ViKOp
NRPSOH[\ VSROHþHQVWHY QD SURWRUDQNHUHFK D QHY\YLQXWêFK S$GiFK N\VHOêFK KRUQLQ QHER QD S$GiFK
LOOLPHUL]RYDQêFK 3HGVWDYXMt YHJHWDFL QD RWHYHQêFK SORFKiFK Y UHOLNWQtFK ERUHFK VXE[HURILOQtFK
N\VHOêFKGRXEUDYiFKDVWDQRYLãWtFKYi]DQêFKQDtþQtUHVS~GROQtIHQRPpQ7DWRVSROHþHQVWYDþDVWR
VHNXQGiUQ SRGPtQQi ]Yt SDWt GR VYD]$ Thero-Airion, Hyperico perforati-Scleranthion perennis,
Alysso-Festucion pallentis.
.RPSOH[QtPHNRV\VWpPHPVNDOVXWtSLRQêUVNêFKVSROHþHQVWHYSULPLWLYQtFKS$GDFLGRILOQtFKVWHSt
OHP$NRYLQDUR]YROQQêFKGRXEUDYMVRXSOHãHYL]NDSYþHWQGLVNXVHNSUREOHPDWLFHS$YRGQRVWL
QDQLFKåURVWHDGDXQLNiWQtFKVSROHþHQVWHY.ROEHN
ýHUQR]HPQtVWHSL
ýHUQR]HPMVRXSR]$VWDWNHPWHSOêFKDVXFKêFKREGREtVWDUãtKRKRORFpQXQDVSUDãtFK-VRXWRW\SLFNp
NOLPD]RQiOQtS$G\6PROtNRYiMVRXYiSQLWpDVLOQKXPy]Qt9]QLNO\SRGRWHYHQêPLVWHSQtPL
WUDYLQRE\OLQQêPLSRURVW\DSURWRåHE\O\YPODGãtPKRORFpQXXPOHXGUåRYiQ\RGOHVQQp]DFKRYDO\VH
Y þHUQR]HPQt REODVWL VWHSQt VSROHþHQVWYD NWHUi PDMt UHOLNWQt FKDUDNWHU V YêVN\WHP GUXK$
NRQWLQHQWiOQtFK VWHSt 0DUWLQRYVNê 6SROHþHQVWYD þHUQR]HPQtFK VWHSt MVRX D]HQD GR VY
Festucion valesiacae (Kolbek 1978).
%tOpVWUiQDRSXNRYpKUDQ\
%tOp VWUiQ MVRX WYRHQ\ VOtQRYFL D YiSQLWêPL StVNRYFL VYUFKQtKR WXURQX NWHUp SRGOpKDMt HUR]L D
VHVXY$P WDNåH Y]QLNDMt StNUp VYDK\ .RPSOH[Qt ]SUDFRYiQt %tOêFK VWUiQt X 3RNUDWLF SRXNi]DOR QD
16
UHOLNWQtFKDUDNWHUORNDOLW\MHMtåKRUQtKUDQD]$VWDODRWHYHQiEKHPDWODQWLND/RåHNLQ3HWtþHN
9HONRSORãQpRGOHVQQtSUREKORDåYKLVWRULFNpGRE
9HJHWDFt EtOêFK VWUiQt VH ]DEêYDO 6WXGQLþND NWHUê VKUQXO MHMLFK FKDUDNWHULVWLNX D
VOHGRYDO S$VREHQt QNWHUêFK IDNWRU$ QD YHJHWDFL SR]YROQp -±= VYDK\ ± GHQXGRYDQp
URYQRPUQRX SORãQRX HUR]t KRVWt XQLIRUPQt YHJHWDFL ]DWtPFR UêKRYRX HUR]t UR]EUi]GQp SRYUFK\ V
KOXERNêPLURNOHPLY\WYiHMtFtPLHUR]QtUHOLpIMVRXYHJHWDþQSHVWHMãtY\WYitVHS$GQtNDWpQDRG
REQDåHQêFKVOtQLWêFKVXURYêFKS$GSHVSDUDUHQG]LQ\DVOtQRYDWN\NþHUQR]HPtP]YRGQOpMtORYLWp
YUVWY\ VH þDVWR VHVRXYDMt VXENRQWLQHQWiOQt W\S NOLPDWX SLVStYi QD -= VYD]tFK N þDVWMãtP
UHJHODþQtP D VROLIOXNþQtP SURFHV$P Yê]QDPQi MH L HROLFNi HUR]H YHJHWDFL WYRt NDWpQD
VSROHþHQVWHYVYBromion erecti (resp. Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati .OLNDHW+DGDþ
=D UHOLNWQt E\O\ GtYH SRYDåRYiQ\ 'RPLQ L W]Y EDELQVNp RUFKLGHMRYp ORXN\ DV Potentillo
albae-Festucetum rubrae %ODåNRYiY/RXQVNRODEVNpPVWHGRKRtURVWRXFtYQDGPYêãFH±
P PD[ P QP +UDGLã"DQ\ 0DUWLQRYVNê E XSR]RUQLO QD MHMLFK SRGREQRVW V
EORNDUSDWVNêPLORXNDPL]HMPEKHPDWODQWLNDPO\IRUPXOHVRVWHSLVRWHYHQêPLSORFKDPLþHPXå
E\QDVYGþRYDOLS$GQtSURILO3R]GMLE\O\MLåXGUåRYiQ\XPOHNQRYt]VNpKUDGLãWQD+UDGLã"DQHFK
2.8. Váté písky
3tVNRYp SHV\S\ MVRX WHUpQQt Y\YêãHQLQ\ WYRHQp XORåHQLQDPL QDYiWpKR StVNX 9]QLNDMt ]D
VSROXS$VREHQt YWUX Y REODVWHFK þL REGREtFK DULGQtKR NOLPDWX ]GURMHP StVNX E\O\ RWHYHQp
SOHLVWRFHQQt WHUDV\ 3LE\O /RåHN L ]YWUDOLQ\ StVNRYF$ 1D YiSQLWêFK YiWêFK StVFtFK
Y]QLNDMt SDUDUHQG]LQ\ Då þHUQR]HP 1D QHYiSQLWêFK StVFtFK QDS Y REODVWL 0RUDY\ D '\MH W]Y
KU~GHFKY]QLNDMtN\VHOpUDQNHU\9WãtGXQ\]DU$VWDMtOHVHPDFLGRILOQtþLERURYRXGRXEUDYRXPHQãt
]$VWiYDMt RWHYHQp 9WãLQD StVHþQêFK SHV\S$ MH MLå ]DOHVQQD ERURYLFHPL QHER ]QLþHQD 3tVN\ MVRX
YHOPL VXFKp UHODWLYQ YHOPL N\VHOp D åLYLQDPL FKXGp PDMt NRQWLQHQWiOQMãt PLNURNOLPD U\FKOH VH QD
SRYUFKXRKtYDMtDRFKOD]XMt(NRORJLFNpSRPU\MVRXRGOLãQpRGVXEDWODQWVNêFKGXQ]iSDGQt(YURS\D
PDMt VSROHþQp U\V\ VStãH V SDQQRQVNêPL StVN\ StWRPQRVW VXEDWODQWVNêFK SDQQRQVNêFK
VXEPHGLWHUiQQtFKDNRQWLQHQWiOQtFKGUXK$*UXOLFK6WDYEH]OHVtMHXGUåRYiQQHXVWiOêPSRK\EHP
D SHYtYiQtP GXQ\ SRNXG MH WRPX ]DEUiQQR StVN\ ]DU$VWDMt WUDYLQRE\OLQQRX VY Corynephorion
canescentis, Koelerion glaucaeDåOHVQtYHJHWDFtVYDicrano-Pinion, Genisto-germanicae Quercion).
3HKOHGSUREOHPDWLN\RFKUDQ\YiWêFKStVN$DSRSLVORNDOLWVYêþWHPSVDPRI\W$DUHOLNWQtHQWRPRIDXQ\
]SUDFRYDO\ 9LOtPRYi HW .ODXGLVRYi =PQD PLNURNOLPDWX Y G$VOHGNX ]YOKþHQt Y]GXFKX
StVNRYQD MH StþLQRX ]iQLNX MHGQp ] QHM]DFKRYDOHMãtFK ORNDOLW X 9ONRYD /XåQLFH 'DOãt StþLQRX
]DQLNiQtMHHXWURIL]DFHD]DU$VWiQtNRPSHWLWLYQtPLGUXK\Calamagrostis epigeios=YOiãWFHQQpMVRX
ORNDOLW\NGHGRFKi]tNHNRPELQDFLVGDOãtPUHOLNWQtPW\SHPQDS+UDEDQRYVNiþHUQDYD
5R]ãtHQt YiWêFK StVN$ MH Y ý5 RPH]HQR QD WL REODVWL ± MLKRþHVNRX SRGpO /XåQLFH D 1HåiUN\
SRODEVNRX D MLKRPRUDYVNRX SRGpO 0RUDY\ %]HQHFNp YiWp StVN\ âPDUGD ) E\O\ XGUåRYiQ\
SRGpO WUDWL MDNR SURWLSRåiUQt SiV D H[LVWRYDO\ GtYH ]HMP MDNR RWHYHQp SURVYWOHQp ERU\ N\VHOp D
VXE[HURILOQtGRXEUDY\.RPSOH['~EUDY\SRVN\WXMHSHGVWDYXRHNRV\VWpPXYiWêFKStVN$REVDKXMtFtP
NURP GRXEUDY NRQWUDVWQt HGDILFN\ SRGPtQQp EH]OHVt QD StVHþQêFK GXQiFK V [HURWHUPQtPL SUYN\
]UDãHOLQOpVQtåHQLQ\VHVXEDWODQWVNêPLDERUHiOQtPLSUYN\VODWLQQpORXN\DQDYêFKR]HFKWHWLKRUQtFK
MtO$LPDOiVODQLVNDHSND
5HOLNWQt YHJHWDFH SVDPRI\W$ VH NURP YiWêFK StVN$ Y\VN\WXMH WDNp QD tþQtFK WHUDViFK QDS
VSROHþHQVWYD V HQGHPLFNêP Dianthus arenarius subsp. bohemicus QD ORNDOLW .OHQHþ 0DUWLQRYVNê
7RPDQ SRYDåRYDO ]D QHM]DFKRYDOHMãt REODVW SVDPRILOQt YHJHWDFH 7HUH]tQVNRX NRWOLQX D
YHJHWDþQtSRPU\GRNOiGiVXNFHVQtDGRX]DNRQþHQRXERU\VSROArmeria elongata-Pinus sylvestris s
reliktními druhy Gypsophila fastigiata, Koeleria glauca a psamofyty resp. acidofyty).
17
1D PtVWHFK NGH GRãOR N Y\YiWt StVNX Då QD SRGORåQt MtO\ URVWH Xå KDORILOQt YHJHWDFH MLåQt 0RUDYD
Grulich 1987).
2.9. Slaniska
3LUR]HQiVODQLVNDVHQDFKi]HMtQDYêYUHFKPLQHUiOQtFKSUDPHQ$DYEH]RGWRNêFKPtVWHFKNGHVHYRGD
RGSDXMHDVROLNU\VWDOL]XMtSLSRYUFKXS$G\9WãLQDGHYLQ]DVROHQtãSDWQVQiãtWDNåHVHQDWFKWR
PtVWHFKPRKORXGUåHWEH]OHVtQDSVODQpUiNRVLQ\VYScirpion maritimi.
9HJHWDFHQDPLQHUiOQtFKSUDPHQHFKQDNtGVYUFKQRWXURQVNpVOtQRYFHDYEH]RGWRNêFKGHSUHVtFK
E\OD Y PLQXORVWL þDVWR REKRVSRGDRYiQD W]Y VODQp ORXN\ D WYRt ML GQHV Xå þDVWR MHQRP IUDJPHQW\
KDORILOQtFK VSROHþHQVWHY VY Scorzonero-Juncion gerardi a Agropyro-Rumicion crispi 1HWHEVNi
slaniska).
1D PLQHUiOQtFK WHUPiOQtFK SUDPHQHFK QD VLUQRåHOH]LWp VODWLQ 'RKQDO HW DO MH YHJHWDFH
WYRHQD NRPSOH[HP VODQêFK UiNRVLQ VY Scirpion maritimi a halofilních luk sv. Scorzonero-Juncion
gerardi QDYD]XMtFtFKQDUDãHOLQLãW6RRV+DGDþ
5HODWLYQ ]DFKRYDOHMãt NRPSOH[\ KDORILOQt D VXEKDORILOQt YHJHWDFH Y 'ROQRPRUDYVNpP ~YDOX
zpracoval Vicherek (1973).
ýHUQDY\
ýHUQDY\Y]QLNDMtMDNRYiSQLWpVODWLQ\QDVODGNRYRGQtFKMH]HUQtFKNtGiFKXVD]HQêFKYREGREtWHSOpKR
D YOKNpKR NOLPDWX Y WHUpQQtFK GHSUHVtFK QD YêYUHFK PLQHUiOQtFK SUDPHQ$ +XPXVRYê KRUL]RQW MH
VLOQYiSQLWêDVLOQKXPy]QtJ\WWMD9]QLNO]D]HPQQtPPONêFKVWDURKRORFpQQtFKPRNDG$/RåHN
MHGQiVHSUDYGSRGREQRY\VRFHUHOLNWQtYHJHWDþQtW\S
9HJHWDFL WYRt HXWURIQt VODWLQQi K\GULFNi DGD ]DNRQþHQi EDåLQQêPL YUELQDPL VY Salicion cinereae
+UDEDQRYVNi þHUQDYD +XViNRYi HW DO 1NWHUi VSROHþHQVWYD VY Magnocaricion elatae a
Caricion davallianae MVRXW\SLFNiSUiYSURþHUQDY\
3UDPHQLãWWUDYHUWLQLãW
9]QLNDYêYRMSQRYF$YWHSOêFKREGREtFKNYDUWpUX/RåHNMHSRGPtQQNURPFKHPLVPXYRG\
SHGHYãtP MHMtP WHSORWQtP UHåLPHP NWHUê ]S$VREXMH MHMt RWHSOHQt D Y\VUiåHQt &D&2 QD SRYUFKX
URVWOLQ NWHUp RGHEtUDMt &2 7R VH GMH L QD SUDPHQLWêFK YêYUHFK Y NUDVRYêFK ~]HPtFK LL QD
SXNOLQRYêFKSUDPHQHFKYiSQLWêFKKRUQLQVOtQ\VOtQRYFHYiSQLWpStVNRYFH D ELGOLFH IO\ã VLOLNiWRYp
KRUQLQ\ V SXNOLQDPL Y\SOQQêPL NDOFLWHP ± SRUI\ULW\ D VSLOLW\ D LLL QD SUDPHQHFK QD KOXERNêFK
WHNWRQLFNêFK OLQLtFK =DWtPFR SQRYFH V\SNp VWUXNWXUQt QD SUDPHQHFK Y]QLNO\ Då Y SRVWJODFLiOX
SUDPHQLW\ NRPSDNWQt WHQFH YUVWHYQDWp QD PLQHUiOQtFK ]tGOHFK VH WYRLO\ EKHP NYDUWpUX
7UDYHUWLQL]DFt UHNU\VWDOL]DFH GUXKRWQi NDOFLILNDFH Y]QLNO\ SHYQp WUDYHUWLQ\ /RåHN /RåLVND
WYRtWHUpQQtWYDU\YSRGRENDVNiGVYDKRYêFKSURXG$SUDPHQQêFKNXSDNUiWHU$5XEtQHWDOD
WYRtWDNpYêSOQ~GROtDVQtåHQLQ
7UDYHUWLQ\ PDMt YHONê VWUDWLJUDILFNê Yê]QDP SURWRåH XFKRYiYDMt ]E\WN\ QDS RWLVN\ PDNUR]E\WN$
XOLW\ PNNêã$ DSRG ] WHSOêFK REGREt SRVWJODFLiO$ 9HJHWDFL SQRYF$ SRSVDO ] ýHVNpKR NUDVX D
.LYRNOiWVND 5LYROD +DGDþ Y\þOHQLO SUR SQRYFRYi SUDPHQLãW VDPRVWDWQê VYD]
Lycopodo-Cratoneurion commutati.
6ODWLQLãWDUDãHOLQLãWYUFKRYLãW
%ODWLãWMVRXWYRHQDVORåLWêPLþDVRSURVWRURYêPLNRPSOH[\HXWURIQtFKDåROLJRWURIQtFKVSROHþHQVWHY
.YDUWpUQtYê]NXP\SURNi]DO\SRGVWDWQYWãtSRGtOSR]GQJODFLiOQtFKDåVWDURKRORFHQQtFKVODWLQNWHUp
YH VWDUpP KRORFpQX Y\VFKO\ EX ~SOQ SDN ]DURVWO\ QHER þiVWHþQ DE\ VH YH VWHGQtP KRORFpQX
]D]HPQLO\ D SRVWXSQRX DFLGLILNDFt GDO\ ]iNODG GQHãQtP UDãHOLQLãWtP /RåHN 3URWR SRYDåXML ]D
18
~þHOQp SRPLQRXW U$]Qi L EORNRYDQi D UHWURJUiGQt VXNFHVQt VWDGLD D UR]OLãLW QD VWHGRHYURSVNêFK
EODWLãWtFKQNROLNVXNFHVQtFKDG]DNRQþHQêFKþiVWHþQUR]YROQQêPOHVHPWDMJRYpKRFKDUDNWHUX
––––––––––––
7\SRORJLL VWHGRHYURSVNêFK KXPROLW$ D ORåLVHN VODWLQLã" D UDãHOLQLã" XYiGt 'RKQDO HW DO Y
HYURSVNpP NRQWH[WX -HQtN HW 6RXNXSRYi WL ]iURYH ]DYiGMt VRXKUQQê SRMHP EODWLãW.
3UREOHPDWLNXYHJHWDþQtNODVLILNDFHDUR]GtOQiSRMHWtXYiGt(OOHQEHUJHWVFKpPDYêYRMH
U$]QêFK EODWLã" Y SRVWJODFLiOX XYiGt 6XFFRZ VHF (OOHQEHUJ ± .ODVLILNDFH
Y\FKi]HMt ] JHRJUDILFNêFK D NOLPDWLFNêFK SRPU$ PtUD RFHDQLW\ QDGPRVNi YêãND
JHRPRUIRORJLFNêFKDK\GULFNRHGDILFNêFKSRPU$SRORKDWURILH]S$VREV\FHQtYRGRXVWitREGREt
Y]QLNXDPD[LPiOQtKRYêYRMHVRXþDVQêVWDYDSRG=JHRPRUIRORJLFNpKRKOHGLVNDVRXYLVHMtEODWLãWVH
]DURYQDQêPL SRYUFK\ .UiO SRGOH MHMLFK SRORK\ MH O]H StPR SURYi]DW QD GHQXGDþQt
]DURYQDQp SRYUFK\ YUFKRORYp UR]YRGQt VYDKRYp D ~SDWQt D GHQXGDþQ DNXPXODþQt ]DURYQDQp
povrchy údolní a pánevní.
9êYRM VWHGRHYURSVNêFK EODWLã" Y SRVWJODFLiOX MH VSHFLILFNê SURWR åH VH MHGQi R RNUDMRYRX REODVW
]DOHGQQt Y GRVDKX ãtHQt ] UHIXJLt Y -9 D -= (YURS ~]HPt V YêUD]QRX JHRORJLFNRX SHVWURVWt D
YêãNRYRX VWXSRYLWRVWt D ELRJHRJUDILFN\ SHFKRGQRX REODVW 9ê]QDPQêP ELRJHRJUDILFNêP D
HNRORJLFNêPIHQRPpQHPMVRXSODQiUQtUDãHOLQLãWQDQHRJHQQtFKVHGLPHQWHFKDVXEDOSLQVNiUDãHOLQLãW
na etchplénu Krkonoš (Jeník et Soukupová 1989).
–––––––––––––6XEDOSLQVNi UDãHOLQLãW VH QDFKi]HMt Y VXGHWVNpP Y\VRNRKRt Y NOHþRYpP VWXSQL 6XNFHVH SUREtKi
PLPRiGQ SRPDOX -HQtN HW 6RXNXSRYi +\GULFNRX VXNFHVQt DGX NRPSOH[X VSROHþHQVWHY VY
Oxycocco-Empetrion hermaphroditi ]DNRQþXMtVWHGRHYURSVNiHQGHPLFNiVSROHþHQVWYDNRVRGHYLQ\DV
Chamaemoro-Pinetum mughi +DGDþ HW 9iD 2Wi]ND UHOLNWQRVWL YêVN\WX Rubus chamaemorus
WYRtFtKR GRNRQFH HQGHPLFNi VXEDOSLQVNi VSROHþHQVWYD 6RXNXSRYi HW DO E\OD NY$OL DEVHQFL
PRQRIiJQtFKKHUELYRU$]SRFK\EQQDMHXYDåRYiQRRYêVDGNX6SLW]HU
9]QLN KRUVNêFK UDãHOLQLã" O]H GDWRYDW GR ERUHiOX 3DQþLFNi UDãHOLQD P QP UHVS DWODQWLND
ýHUQRKRUVNpUDãHOLQLãWPQP 3DFOWRYi S\ORYp DQDOê]\ GRNOiGDMt VWtGiQt RNROQtFK
OHVQtFKSRURVW$
1iKRUQt YUFKRYLãW VH QDFKi]HMt QD UR]YRGQLFtFK tþQtFK V\VWpP$ 0RGUDYVNp VODW %RåtGDUVNp
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0UWYê OXK 6XNFHVQt DGX YUFKRYLã" Y\MPD QHMY\ããtFK SRORK NGH VH ]D OHW QH]PQLOD DQL
PLNURWRSRJUDILH SRYUFKX DQL YHOLNRVW D WYDU MH]tUHN -HQtN HW 6RXNXSRYi ]DNRQþXMt NOHþRYp
(Krkonoše, Jizerské hory), resp. blatkové porosty as. Pino rotundatae-Sphagnetum DUDãHOLQQpVPUþLQ\
as. Sphagno-Piceetum D SRURVW\ Et]\ NDUSDWVNp 6RIURQ 5R]GtOQi MVRX ~GROQt ]D]HPRYDQi
YUFKRYLãW V EODWNRX D VYDKRYi ]YRGQQi UDãHOLQLãW V NtåHQFHP P. x pseudopumilio QD âXPDY
(Soukupová 1996).
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ãXPDYVNêFKVODWtY0UWYpPOXKXDSRG3HKOHGORNDOLWXYiGt%XVLQVNêYWLVNX
'\QDPLNX VXNFHVL D HNRORJLFNp NRPSOH[\ VSROHþHQVWHY UDãHOLQLã" 9HONpKR 'iND SRSVDO 1HXKlXVO
=DNRQþHQtPROLJRPHVRWURIQtVXNFHVQtDG\VSROHþHQVWHYVYSphagnion medii je blatkový bor
as. Pino rotundatae-Sphagnetum 7DWR VSROHþHQVWYD PDMt VXSUDNROLQQt Då VXEPRQWiQQt UR]ãtHQt
7HERVNi SiQHY Pi FKDUDNWHU PUD]RYp NRWOLQ\ $OWHUQDWLYQt SRURVW\ Y NROLQQtP VWXSQL 'RNHVNR
7XURRYi 6WDQþtN MVRX V ERURYLFt OHVQt DV Eriophoro vaginati-Pinetum silvestris.
19
5DãHOLQLãWQtRWHYHQiVSROHþHQVWYDSHFKi]HMtYUDãHOLQQpERU\DVVaccinio uliginosi-Pinetum sylvestris
1HXKlXVO 9ãHFKQD WDWR VSROHþHQVWYD Y\ND]XMt Y\VRNRX UHODWLYQt R]iHQRVW 1HXKlXVO 0HFKDQLVPXV XGUåRYiQt VYWOLQ VSRþtYi NURP F\NOLFNpKR ]DYRGQQt VH D RGXPtUiQt SURSDGiQt VH
VWURP$ L YH YêYUDWHFK 5HNWRULV SRS Y REGREt VWHGQtKR KRORFpQX Y SRåiUHFK 'RKQDO 5\EQtþHNHW5\EQtþNRYi
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QD D NROHP XVD]HQLQ WHWLKRUQtFK MH]HU Y 0RVWHFNp SiQYL PODGãt DWODQWLN .RPRDQVNp MH]HUR
-DQNRYVNi -HVWHEVNp NRWOLQ VWDUãt DWODQWLN -DQNRYVNi þL QD 7HERVNX PODGãt
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sv. Salicion cinereae DEDåLQQpROãLQ\VYAlnion glutinosae10).
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QHE\ODDNFHSWRYiQDGRSHGEåQpKRHYURSVNpKRSHKOHGX=HFKPHLVWHUHW0XFLQD
2.14. Nivy a luhy
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YRGRKRVSRGiVNêFK ~SUDY 3HVWR O]H KRYRLW R þiVWHþQpP UHOLNWQtP EH]OHVt PRþiO\ EREt ORXN\
XGUåRYDQpPMHGQDN]iSODYDPLMHGQDNYPLQXORVWLþLQQRVWtEREU$/RåHN/]HSHGSRNOiGDWåH
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NRPSOH[\ ]DU$VWDMtFtFK PUWYêFK UDPHQ D W$QL .HWWQHU Y QLFKå VH ]DFKRYDOD D]RQiOQt
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2.15. Interpretace reliktního bezlesí
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georeliéfu a mezoreliéfu (charakteristické komplexy VSROHþHQVWHYMHGQDNQDORNiOQt~URYQLPH]RUHOLpIXDå
mikroreliéfu (charakteristické mozaiky VSROHþHQVWHY9ê]QDPUHOLNWQtKREH]OHVtDLQWHUSUHWDFLKLVWRULFNpKR
vývoje YHJHWDFH XNi]DO QD StNODGX NRSFH %RH 6iGOR E =D QHM]iYDåQMãt YêVWXS KLVWRULFNp
20
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KHOLRILOQt [HURILOQt D [HURWHUPQt GUXK\ 7HQWR SRKOHG Pi RYãHP GDOHNRViKOp G$VOHGN\ ]HMPpQD ]
KOHGLVND YHJHWDþQt GLYHUVLW\ 9\YROiYi SRWHEX SUDFRYDW Xå QLNROL V ~URYQt VSROHþHQVWHY DOH MHMLFK
SLUR]HQêFKVHVNXSHQtPR]DLHNNDWpQNRPSOH[$DSRGYL](OOHQEHUJ1DQXWQRVWUHVSHNWRYiQt
]iNRQLWpKR RSDNRYiQt YHJHWDþQtFK NRPSOH[$ D S$GQYHJHWDþQtFK NDWpQ SL VHVWDYRYiQt
JHQHUDOL]RYDQêFKUHNRQVWUXNþQtFKPDSXåSRXNi]DO-HQtN
3UiY UR]PDQLWRVW HNRIHQRPpQ$ ]S$VRELOD PRåQRVW SHåtYiQt DG\ UHOLNWQtFK GUXK$ 9 QNWHUêFK
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ELRJHRJUDILFNpP þOHQQt NGH SHFKRG\ QNWHUêFK MHGQRWHN PDMt þDVWR VPtãHQê FKDUDNWHU SUYN\
VRXVHGtFtFKUHJLRQ$WDNåHMVRXRERKDFHQ\RGUXK\]YtFHREODVWtDMHYtVHMDNRSHVWHMãt3LWRPSRNXG
KUDQLFH QHQt QDS Y G$VOHGNX ]ORPX RVWUi SUiY Y WFKWR RNUDMRYêFK ~]HPtFK GRFKi]t N PtVHQt
XUþLWêFKSUYN$DY]QLNXYHJHWDþQtFKPR]DLHN$UELWUiUQtVWDQRYHQtKUDQLFSRGOHWRKRþLRQRKRNULWpULD
SDN YHGH N QHXVWiOHQp NRQFHSFL ELRJHRJUDILFNpKR þOHQQt 5R]XPQêP HãHQtP E\ VQDG PRKOR EêW
Y\W\þHQtMiGURYêFKREODVWt-HQtNGDQêFKRURJUDILFN\DSHFKRGQêFK]yQWHQWRStVWXSYL]&XOHN
RYãHPEH]VQDK\RVWULNWQtYHGHQtKUDQLFþtPåE\VHRYãHPþOHQQtYUiWLORNS$YRGQtPXSRMHWt
I\WRFKRULRQ$ ]H ]DþiWNX VWROHWt -HOL SHFKRGQi SORFKD ]QDþQ UR]ViKOi ]DYiGt VH SUR QL VDPRVWDWQê
UHJLRQMHKRåKODYQtFKDUDNWHULVWLNRXMHSUiYRQDSHFKRGQRVW1DWpVHSRGtOtYHJHWDFHQDH[WUpPQtFK
VWDQRYLãWtFKþDVWRSHGVWDYXMtFtW]YIRUSRVW\SHGVXQXWpORNDOLW\-HQtNF $EVHQFH YHJHWDþQtKR
StVWXSX N I\WRJHRJUDILFNpPX þOHQQt MH GOH PpKR Qi]RUX G$YRGHP DG\ H[LVWXMtFtFK RGOLãQêFK
NRQFHSFt 3LWRP FKRURORJLH YHJHWDFH P$åH ]QDþQ SLVSW NHãHQt DG\ SUREOpP$ I\WRJHRJUDILFNpKR
þOHQQt YL] QDS 6êNRUD 7 6RIURQ 1D FHORVWiWQt ~URYQL E\OD Qi]QDNHP DOH VNXWHþQ
SRX]H Qi]QDNHP YHJHWDþQtKR StVWXSX NODVLILNDFH YHJHWDþQ JHRJUDILFNpKR þOHQQt 0RUDYHF HW
Neuhäusl 1984).
3UREOHPDWLND RVWURVWL KUDQLF P$åH SLVSW N SR]QiQt HNRORJLFNêFK IDNWRU$ NWHUp MVRX NULWLFNp SUR
SHYOiGQXWt GRPLQDQW 3URWR MH VWXGLXP SHFKRG$ D SHFKRGRYêFK ]yQ G$OHåLWp Y UiPFL HNRORJLFNpKR
výzkumu.
3RMHWt YHJHWDþQtFK NRPSOH[$ S$GQYHJHWDþQtFK NDWpQ VH RYãHP SURPtWQH WDNp GR StVWXSX N
OHJHQG UHNRQVWUXNþQtFK PDS PDOêFK D VWHGQtFK PtWHN 9 WpWR OHJHQG O]H DNFHSWRYDW KODYQt
NOLPD[RYp YHJHWDþQt W\S\ DOH MH WHED MH SRMPRXW MDNR VHVNXSHQt VSROHþHQVWHY WHG\ ]DKUQRXW GR
SRSLVQpþiVWLOHJHQG\LSORãQRPH]HQpH[WUpPQtYHJHWDþQtW\S\þDVWRQHPDSRYDWHOQp
9HJHWDþQtSURILO\
1DUHJLRQiOQt~URYQLY\MDGXMtYD]EXYHJHWDFHQDUHOLpIYêãNRYpYHJHWDþQtSURILO\þDVWRMHãWGRSOQQp
YHJHWDþQt PDSRX 7DN O]H SRPUQ MHGQRGXãH REUD]RY Y\MiGLW YHJHWDþQt NDWpQX WHVVHOX L PR]DLNX
EOLåãtNRPHQWiYL]NDS[\9REHFQpURYLQMVRX W\WR ]iNRQQLWRVWL GREH SRSViQ\ QDS (OOHQEHUJ
, SHVWR åH YWãLQD ~]HPt MH ]DOHVQQD ]DFK\FXMt YHJHWDþQt SURILO\ D PDS\ EH]OHVp SRORK\
]SUDYLGODYHYD]EQDVNDOQtIHQRPpQ
/RNiOQtYD]EDYHJHWDFHQDUHOLpIY\MiGHQiYêãNRYêPLSURILO\
Termofytikum
21
/RXQVNRODEVNp VWHGRKRt 2EOtN ± 0DUWLQRYVNê 9UDQtN ± 6WXGQLþND ÒãWFNR ±
.ROEHN HW 3HWtþHN 'ROQt 3RRKt X /LERFKRYLF 6êNRUD / 6WHGQt 3RODEt QLYD /DEH ±
1HXKlXVORYi ýHVNê NUDV 3URNRSVNp ~GROt ± .XEtNRYi 'ROQt 3RYOWDYt 3RGKRt ±
.XEtNRYi7LFKp~GROt±.XEtNRYiLQ1PHFHW/RåHN
Mezofytikum
ýHVNê OHV 'ORXKi VNiOD ± .XþHUD HW -LUiVHN .LYRNOiWVNR 'RPLQ .OLND +XVRYi
9$]QLFH ± .XþHUD 6WHGQt 3RYOWDYt VNiO\ X 3LNRYLF ýHRYVNê 7HERVNi SiQHY
-HQtN HW .YW LQ -HQtN HW 3ULFH 3RRWDYt 0RUDYHF /DEVNp StVNRYFH ýHRYVNê =LWWRYi.XUNRYi/XåLFNpKRU\.Otþ±6êNRUD73RORPHQpKRU\3HWtþHN.XþHUD
HWâSU\DU5DOVNREH]G]VNiWDEXOH&KUDVWQêYUFK±6êNRUD7-HãWGVNêKEHW6êNRUD
70RUDYVNpSRGK$t9\VRþLQ\~GROt]iSDGRPRUDYVNêFKHN±âPDUGDHW9]GD&K\WUê
&K\WUêHW9LFKHUHNäHOH]QpKRU\1HXKlXVO0RUDYVNêNUDV3XVWêåOHE±âPDUGD
1967)
Oreofytikum
6ODYNRYVNê OHV -HQtN HW DO äiUVNp YUFK\ 1HXKlXVO +UXEê -HVHQtN 1HXKlXVO âXPDYD6RIURQHWâWSiQ
Literatura
%DODWND % HW DO 9êYRM StVNRYFRYpKR UHOLpIX ýHVNp WDEXOH QD StNODGX 3RORPHQêFK KRU ±
5R]SUýV$NDG9G6HU0DWK1DWXU3UDKD
%DODWND%HW6OiGHN-tþQtWHUDV\YþHVNêFK]HPtFK±3UDKDS
%DODWND % HW 6OiGHN - *HRPRUIRORJLH &+.2 .RNRtQVNR D SLOHKOpKR ~]HPt ± %RKHP
Central., Praha, 10:7–53.
%ODåNRYi'
%UDEHF(3tVSYHNNHNRORJLLVXWtýHVNpKRVWHGRKRt±SPV>'LSOSUGHSRQLQNQLK
NDWERWDQ3tURGIDN8QLY.DUORY\[email protected]
%|VZDUWRYi-6SROHþHQVWYRVH6D[LIUDJDGHFLSLHQVYHVWHGQtP3RYOWDYt±3UHVOLD3UDKD
223–228.
%XUHãRYi = $OStQVNi YHJHWDFH .UNRQRã VWUXNWXUD D HNRORJLH SRURVW$ QD /XþQt P D
6WXGQLþQpKRHP±2SHUD&RUFRQW3UDKD±
%XVLQVNê 5 $JUHJiW 3LQXV PXJR Y EêYDOpP ýHVNRVORYHQVNX ± WD[RQRPLH UR]ãtHQt K\EULGQt
SRSXODFHDRKURåHQt±=SUýHV%RW6SROHþ3UDKDLQSUHVV
&tOHN 9 *HRPRUIRORJLFNi FKDUDNWHULVWLND D VNDOQt WYDU\ VWHGQtFK %UG ± ,Q 3tURGD %UG D
SHUVSHNWLY\MHMtRFKUDQ\3tEUDPS±
&tOHN9±.OLPDPLQXORVWLDEXGRXFQRVWL±2FKU3tU3UDKD±±HW
50: 10–13, 50–53, 82–85.
&tOHN 9 HW DO 9ê]NXP StVNRYFRYêFK SHYLV$ Y V] þiVWL &+.2 .RNRtQVNR ± 2FKU 3tU
Praha, 51: 43–47, 104–108.
&tOHN 9 HW /DQJURYi $ 6NDOQt N$U\ D VROQp ]YWUiYiQt Y &+.2 /DEVNp StVNRYFH ± 2FKU
3tU3UDKD±
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&XOHN7%LRJHRJUDILFNpþOHQQtýHVNpUHSXEOLN\±3UDKD
22
&]XGHN 7 HW 'HPHN - 9ê]QDP SOHLVWRFpQQt NU\RSODQDFH QD YêYRM SRYUFKRYêFK WYDU$ ýHVNp
Y\VRþLQ\±$QWKURSRV%UQR±
ýHODNRYVNê/.YWHQDRNROtSUDåVNpKR±3UDKD
ýHUQRKRUVNê = 'XWRKOiYND DOSVNi &ODGRQLD DOSHVWULV / 5DEK QD GROQRNUDORYLFNêFK
KDGFtFK±2FKU3tU3UDKD±
ýHRYVNê-;HURWKHUPQtYHJHWDFHQDVNDOiFKL3tNRYLFDMHMtRFKUDQD±2FKU3tU3UDKD
28–30.
ýHRYVNê - 5RMRYQtN EDKHQQt /HGXP SDOXVWUH / Y /DEVNpP StVNRYFRYpP SRKRt ± 2FKU
3tU3UDKD±
ýHRYVNê-3HWURI\W\±VNDOQtURVWOLQ\±2FKU3tU3UDKD±
ýHRYVNê-=D~þLQQMãtRFKUDQX/DEVNêFKStVNRYF$±2FKU3tU3UDKD±
Demek J. (1987): Obecná geomorfologie. – Praha, 480 p.
'HPHN-HWDO*HRPRUIRORJLHýHVNêFK]HPt±3UDKDS
'HPHN-HWDO+RU\DQtåLQ\±3UDKDS
'HPHN-HW=HPDQ-7\S\UHOLpIX=HP±3UDKDS
'RKQDO=5DãHOLQLãWDVODWLQLãW3RORPHQêFKKRU±$QWKURSR]RLNXP3UDKD±
'RKQDO=HWDOýHVNRVORYHQVNiUDãHOLQLãWDVODWLQLãW±3UDKDS
'RPLQ.ýHVNpVWHGRKRt6WXGLHI\WRJHRJUDILFNi±3UDKD
'RPLQ.&tVDVNêOHVVWXGLHJHRERWDQLFNi±3UDKD
'RPLQ.*HRERWDQLFNpH[NXUVHSRýHFKiFKYU±6SLV\3tURGIDN.DUO8QLY3UDKD
59: 1–46.
Ellenberg H. (1988): Vegetation ecology of Central Europe. 4th ed. – Cambridge, 732 p.
Ellenberg H. (1996): Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen. 5. Aufl. – Stuttgart, 1096 p.
)DOW\V 9 3HWtþHN 9 HW 5\GOR - 1iYUK UHSUH]HQWDWLYQt VtW PDORSORãQêFK &+Ò Y 3RODEt ±
3DP3tU3UDKD±
Gams H. (1928): Über Reliktföhrenwälder und das Dolomitphänomen. – Veröff. Geobot. Inst. Rübel 6:
32–80.
*UXOLFK 9 )\WRJHRJUDILFNi FKDUDNWHULVWLND MLKRPRUDYVNêFK StVN$ ± =SU ýV %RW 6SROHþ
Praha, 22, Mater. 6: 75–79.
Gruna B. et Reiter A. [eds.] (1996): Výzkum lokality Ledové sluje u Vranova nad Dyjí (NP Podyjí). –
3tURGD3UDKD±
+DGDþ(5RVWOLQVWYR6RRVXX)UDQWLãNRYêFK/i]Qt2FKU3tU3UDKD
+DGDþ($VXUYH\RISODQWFRPPXQLWLHVRIVSULQJVDQGPRXQWDLQEURRNVLQ&]HFKRVORYDNLD±
Folia Geobot. Phytotax., Praha, 18: 339–361.
+DGDþ ( HW 9iD - 3tVSYHN N SR]QiQt UDãHOLQQêFK URVWOLQQêFK VSROHþHQVWHY YêFKRGQtFK
Krkonoš. – Opera Corcont., Praha, 5: 157–173.
+DQ]O9HW.DXSRYi+9\XåLWtDUFKLYQtFKOHWHFNêFKVQtPN$SUR]DOHVQQt0RKHOHQVNpVWHSL
±2FKU3tU3UDKD±
+HMWPiQHN-9HVRYFRYpERU\Y&tVDVNpPOHVH±2FKU3tU3UDKD±
Herben T. (1992): Ecotone – basic building unit of sandstone ecosystems of northern Bohemia. –
Ekológia, Bratislava, 11: 287–291.
Hinterlang D. (1992): Vegetationsökologie der Weichwasserquellgesellschaften zentraleuropäischer
Mittelgebirge. – Crunoecia, Solingen, 1: 5–117.
+DGDþ ( 3R]QiPN\ R HQGHPLFNêFK URVWOLQiFK ýHVNp VRFLDOLVWLFNp UHSXEOLN\ ± =SU ýV %RW
6SROHþ3UDKD±
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Mater. 6: 15–33.
23
Holub J. et Jirásek V. (1967): Zur Vereinheitlichung der Terminologie in der Phytogeographie. – Folia
Geobot. Phytotax., Praha, 2: 91–113.
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1–58.
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=iSDGRþHV.UDMH3tU3O]H±±
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6WXGQLþND0%tOpVWUiQýHVNpKRVWHGRKRt±SPV>'HSRQLQNQLKNDWERW3tURG
fak. Univ. Karlovy Praha.]
6WXGQLþND09HJHWDFHEtOêFKVWUiQtýHVNpKRVWHGRKRtDGROQtKR3RRKt±3UHVOLD3UDKD
155–176.
6WXGQLþND 0 =iNRQLWp UR]ãtHQt VWHSQtFK VSROHþHQVWHY QD NRSFL 9UDQtNX Y VHYHUR]iSDGQtFK
ýHFKiFK±3UHVOLD3UDKD±
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6êNRUD/3tURGQtSRPU\3RORPHQêFKKRUDFR]QLFKY\SOêYiSURRFKUDQiVWYtDKRVSRGiVNp
SOiQRYiQt±2FKU3tU3UDKD±
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6êNRUD / )\WRLQGLNDFH VHVXYQêFK ~]HPt Y ý665 ± 5R]SUDY\ ý6$9 6HU 0DWK1DWXU
71/10: 1–62.
6êNRUD76SRUQpRWi]N\FKUiQQpKR~]HPt-HãWGYVHYHUQtFKýHFKiFK±2FKU3tU3UDKD
76–81.
6êNRUD73tVSYHNNYHJHWDFLVNXSLQ\.OtþHY/XåLFNêFKKRUiFK±6ERUQ6HYHURþHV0X]
Ser. Natur., Liberec, 4: 53–96.
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ýHVNpPVWHGRKRt±6WLSDÒVWtQ/DEHP±
6êNRUD 7 E 3tVSYHN NH NYWHQ 5DOVNp SDKRUNDWLQ\ ± &KUDVWQê YUFK VHYHUQt ýHFK\ ±
Preslia, Praha, 51: 141–152.
6êNRUD75RVWOLQQiVSROHþHQVWYDVNDOOHVQtKRVWXSQ±=SUýV%RW6SROHþ3UDKD0DWHU
2: 46–50.
6êNRUD 7 )\WRJHRJUDILFNp KRGQRFHQt RNUDMRYêFK SRKRt VXGHWVNpKR PDVtYX ± ,Q 0ODGê )
>[email protected]\I\WRJHRJUDILFNpKRþOHQQtý6656WXGLHý6$93UDKD±
Sýkora T. et Štursa J. (1973): Vysokostébelné nivy s dominancí kapradin v sudetských karech –
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âHEHVWD - HW 7UHPO 9 *ODFLJHQQt D QLYDþQt PRGHODFH ~GROt D ~GROQtFK X]iYU$ .UNRQRã ±
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âLPU-6SROHþQRVWORPLNDPHQXWUVQDWpKRQDGUROLQiFKýHVNpKRVWHGRKRt±3tURGD%UQR
55–58 et 79–85.
29
âPDUGD)5RVWOLQQiVSROHþHQVWYD~]HPtSHV\SRYêFKStVN$OHVD'RXEUDY\X+RGRQtQD±3U
%UQQ=iNOý6$9%UQRQR±
âPDUGD-5DãHOLQLãWX5HMYt]X±2FKU3tU3UDKD±
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âPDUGD-5RVWOLQQiVSROHþHQVWYDVNDOQDWpOHVRVWHSL3DYORYVNêFKNRSF$QD0RUDYý665±
ýHVNRVORFKUSUtU%UDWLVODYD±
âPDUGD - HW 9]GD $ . SR]QiQt D RFKUDQ NUDMLQQpKR Ui]X ~GROt ]iSDGRPRUDYVNêFK HN ±
2FKU3tU3UDKD±
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7XURRYi ' 9HJHWDFH VWiWQt StURGQt UH]HUYDFH +UDGþDQVNp U\EQtN\ X 0LPRQ ± 6ERUQ
6HYHURþHV0X]3tU/LEHUHF±
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7VFKHFKRVORZDNHL±,Q9HJHWDFHý6653UDKD$±
9LOtPRYi-HW.ODXGLVRYi$=KRGQRFHQtYiWêFKStVN$Yý5]ERWDQLFNpKRDHQWRPRORJLFNpKR
SRKOHGX±3DP3tU3UDKD±±HW±
9LWiVHN)=iNODG\I\VLFNpKR]HPSLVX±3UDKDS
9RWêSND - *HQH]H D NODVLILNDFH JUDQLWRYpKR UHOLpIX PDVtYX 3OHFKpKR ± -LKRþHV 0X] Y
ýHVNêFK%XGMRYLFtFKS
Wagnerová Z. et Šírová H. (1971): Saxifrago (oppositifoliae)-Festucetum versicoloris, nová rostlinná
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=yO\RPL%)LWRFHQR]\LOHVRPHOLRUDFLLREQDåHQLMJRU%XG\±$FWD%LRO$FDG6FL+XQJ
7–67.
=RXEHN9HW.XQVNê->[email protected]*HRORJLHI\]LFNê]HPSLV±,QýHVNRVORYHQVNiYODVWLYGD
3tURGD±3UDKD
30

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