Domestic violence from the perspective of Roma women

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Domestic violence from the perspective of Roma women
1st International e-Conference on Optimization, Education and Data Mining in Science,
Engineering and Risk Management 2011 (OEDM SERM 2011)
Domestic violence from the perspective of Roma women
Tereza Koutská1, Alena Kajanová1
1
University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Health and Social Studies
Department of Social Work, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
[email protected]
Abstract:
The article concerns with domestic violence by the Roma minority. It is based on
the theoretical concept of multifactorial theory (D.G. Dutton) and describes domestic violence with regard to its normativity in the socio-cultural sense.
This article also analyzes whether and to what domestic violence is related to the traditional arrangement of Roma families and the relationship between a man and a woman. Construction of domestic violence in our culture is associated with the women emancipation, so
the article is devoted also to the topic of the emancipation of Roma women, which strongly
appears especially in recent years.
Keywords: domestic violence, emancipation, Roma woman, Roma ethnicity, multifactorial
theory
I. INTRODUCTION
In the beginning of this article a central theory to theoretically anchor the problem is outlined. This is a multi-factor theory of domestic violence, currently dominating and reflecting
the view that domestic violence is a complicated and complex conditional phenomenon.
Specifically, it is a causal model created by D.G. Dutton (2007), which works with
4 structural planes of sources and causes of domestic violence, which lies:
1. In macro system, in which domestic violence is caused due
lent patriarchal hierarchy of
values, which
is
based on
the
of men. In hierarchical societies the leading role is possessed by men;
to prevadomination
„Patriarchy in the traditional narrow sense is a system based on the Greek and Roman
law, where the male head of the family have absolute legal and economic power
over dependent female and male family members, so a system that ended in the 19th century,
when civil rights were guaranteed to women.“1
In sight of this information is immediately obvious that if we want to dramatically change
the concept, which stood at solid foundations, and "fell" under the influence of events which,
unfortunately, were not strong enough to immediately affect the further development, we are
dealing with struggle against the attitudes that are more or less culturally given to us. There is
no point to defend the patriarchy, but rather to doubt upon the platform that could help us to
extensively research the domestic violence, free from patriarchal tendencies. There is no other
option but accepting such tendencies.
2. In exosystem, i.e. life and social environment of individuals which influences them. It
1
VODOCHODSKÝ, Ivan. Patriarchát na socialistický způsob: k genderovému řádu státního socialismu.
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1st International e-Conference on Optimization, Education and Data Mining in Science,
Engineering and Risk Management 2011 (OEDM SERM 2011)
concerns
the
effects of formal
and informal
structures and
life situations, such
as unemployment, low income, low education and non-social networks;
3. In microsystem which represents the family itself and the risks inherent to family life.
4. The
ontogenetic plane is
closest to
the
original psychological theories
of domestic violence. It is looking up the causes in individual characteristics of perpetrator,
victim and their mutual interactions. 2
This concept may help to deepen the knowledge about the motives that violent persons
have when they are compelled to commit domestic violence, and also about attitudes of people who often remain in destructive relationships.
I will discuss further in the part where I touch on Roma ethnicity the possible motives
of Roma men, respectively the position of Roma women.
II. THE NORMATIVE DEFINITION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
The topic of domestic violence is often debated in our society. This controversy arose mainly
from two factors.
The
first
is
the impact
of emancipation “movement”
on
the specific problems
associated with
purely masculine
behavior,
often advocated or excused by both experts and the majority. The second impact is standing
behind the changing attitudes towards domestic violence and can be generally characterized as
a
growing education
level
of
society
in
the current,
attractive
and accepted mainstream topics, which is supported among other things, especially by the
efforts of NGOs to highlight the theme.
Domestic violence was not still in the middle of the 20th century a theme, which would
be discussed by experts, was not defined as a “problem” and from the constructivist point of
view it did not exist.3 If domestic violence is from the perspective of the present majority considered as anything abnormal, pathological, defining standards by which
to distinguish this phenomenon (and which would also serve as a platform for specific situations or problems in the group) is quite essential.
“The norm could not be taken as a stable invariant quantity, and therefore normality must be
considered in every situation differently, and also depending on conditions. In relation to
the researched topic it is suggested to work with the group norm. Different social groups may
be in terms of their normative criteria strongly varying. Social group may have their stanards,
ideals and concept of abnormality defined generationally, professionally or, for example, ethnically.”4
Different perception of standards could lead to fact, that some phenomena that the majority of
companies defined as deviant, are perceived differently, for example, as part of the traditions.5
III. THE ROMIPEN CONCEPT AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
The literature does not clearly define the term of Roma nationality. “Romipen becomes
a concept presented only in the elite circles of Roma, which is increasingly resounding from
the mouth of anthropologists and ethnographers than the Roma themselves.”6 The question is
2
ČÍRTKOVÁ, Ludmila. Domácí násilí ve faktech a teoriích. In Gender. Rovné příležitosti. Research, p. 2.
Srov. BERGER, Peter a Thomas LUCKMAN. The social construction of reality.
4
VÁGNEROVÁ, Marie. Psychopatologie pro pomáhající profese.
5
Srov. RŮŽIČKA, Michal. Kriminalita z antropologické perspektivy.
6
DAVIDOVÁ, Eva. Romské obyvatelstvo v České a Slovenské republice ve vývojových souvislostech, p. 69.
3
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1st International e-Conference on Optimization, Education and Data Mining in Science,
Engineering and Risk Management 2011 (OEDM SERM 2011)
to what extent it is a construct grown and nurtured in professional circles, and to what extent
it is understood by the Roma themselves as a moral imperative influencing behavior within
the community, which in turn affects the act of domestic violence.
As noted by Jakoubek (2005), the term of Roma nationality is understood by some Romists,
eventually ethnographers, as “innate, as a biological quality, rather than as an attribute acquired.”7 Does it mean that every Roma since its birth is biologically disposed to adhere
to moral standards
and
rules, where the
community strictly monitors their
performance and penalizes them for any failure? In such a case any further debate on the issue of
domestic violence on Roma
women
would
be
unnecessary, it
would
be a fictional construct, unsubstantiated and the following view would not be valid: “When
the romipen was working properly, the norms existed which allowed a woman reach its remedy
of inappropriate behavior from the partner by social pressure. The community
was understood that, if not achieving the compliance of romipen in extended family,
it will have to take care of the weak part itself. These norms (and their practical implementation) are currently difficult to imagine.”8
IV. EMANCIPATION OF ROMA WOMEN
Currently, emancipation efforts are beginning to penetrate the Roma community, Roma women are beginning to perceive significant disparities between female and
male populations, especially in the field of rights and obligations associated with both family
life and with the position in the labor market and also the equal access to education. 9
For the phenomenon of domestic violence, these emancipatory efforts can make a big step
forward to gain dignity, knowledge of rights, strict demarcation of boundaries, beyond
which it is a case of oppression.
“Even though solid family structures are starting to be gradually reduced and Roma woman tends to the emancipation, she is still an unequal partner for Roma man
and her roles are still associated with the care of children and household.” 10 The possibility of
Roma women to break away from the traditional position is reduced by the simple fact that
the
excluded
Romanies generally
have little chance
of social
advancement and
full participation in society.”11
The above-said is the same as the claim that the position of Roma women in Czech society is dramatically framed
by
the
position
of the
Roma
minority in
the country. Minoritization of a group is for Roma women the first and most defining component of all other relationships. As it was already mentioned the status and the form of Roma
family is for the position of Roma women significant. Changes in family life of the Roma are
the key to understanding the changing social status of Roma women.12 The topic
of emancipation of Roma women and their struggle to obtain a strong position in society, is
7
8
JAKOUBEK, Marek. Soudobé spory o multikulturalismus a politiku identit, p. 202
ROMIPEN - Setkání a spolupráce světů různých kultur [online].
9
Srov. KAJANOVÁ, A., D. URBAN, V. KUBELOVÁ a E. DAVIDOVÁ. Změna tradičního postavení romské
ženy v romské rodině a české společnosti, p. 74
10
Ibidem, p. 74
11
Availible from: http: //www.vlada.cz/.../dodatecne-dotazy-a-oodpovedi-CEDAW-final-MZ...
12
Srov. PULKRÁBKOVÁ, Kateřina. Rámování reprezentace romských žen v české společnosti, p. 4
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Engineering and Risk Management 2011 (OEDM SERM 2011)
pursued by the most dedicated professionals and some NGOs dealing with gender issues (such
as Slovo 21, Upre Roma and others).
“Roma ‚active‘ women, as well as organizations aimed at supporting Roma women, are still
fighting for their place in society, public space and majority-controlled institutions. At
all levels and in all modes of representation an obvious struggle for its existence coupled with
the search for identity takes place.”13
An important factor that has an impact on the occurrence of domestic violence in the Roma community, is social exclusion and poverty culture, in which part of the Roma population is associating.14
Finally, it must be said that in connection with the occurrence of domestic violence in the
Roma community there is a paradoxical situation in which an increased incidence of this phenomenon in the Roma community is reflected in several strategic documents
and recommendations, but practical steps in this matter have not yet been made, there are
no research and expert works, which would deal with the issue. The practical experience
shows that once again the important role is played by absentee information about domestic violence within this community, also the difficult way to disseminate this information so
that it is effectively perceived. Also, to a certain extent, socio-cultural diversity of the Roma
community is important, where the significant role is played by the family, traditional division
of roles and loyalty to the community. 15
V. REFERENCES
VODOCHODSKÝ, I. Patriarchát na socialistický způsob: k genderovému řádu státního
socialismu. Gender. Rovné příležitosti. Výzkum [online]. 2007, roč. 8, č. 2 [cit. 2012-01-04].
ISSN 1213-0028.
(Available at URL: http://www.genderonline.cz/view.php?cisloclanku=2008012707)
ČÍRTKOVÁ, L. Domácí násilí ve faktech a teoriích. In Gender. Rovné příležitosti. Výzkum,
2002, č.1, ISSN 1213-0028.
VÁGNEROVÁ, M. Psychopatologie pro pomáhající profese. Praha: Portál, 2004.
ISBN 80–7178-802–3
RŮŽIČKA, M.. Kriminalita z antropologické perspektivy. In AntropoWEBZIN, 2008, č.1,
ISSN 1801-8807.
JAKOUBEK, M., HIRT,T. Soudobé spory o multikulturalismus a politiku identit (Antropologická perspektiva). Plzeň: Vydavatelství a nakladatelství Aleš Čeněk, 2005. ISBN 80-8689822-9.
KAJANOVÁ, A., URBAN, D., KUBELOVÁ ,V.,DAVIDOVÁ,E. Změna tradičního
postavení romské ženy v romské rodině a české společnosti. In Zdravotníctvo a sociálna
práca, 2009, 3-4 (4).
13
PULKRÁBKOVÁ, Kateřina. Rámování reprezentace romských žen v české společnosti, p. 4
ŠIMÍKOVÁ, Ivana. Domácí násilí v romských komunitách.
15
Srov. PERSEFONA. Bílá místa v péči o oběti domácího násilí. Analýza systému pomoci obětem domácího
násilí s výstupy monitoringu .
14
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Engineering and Risk Management 2011 (OEDM SERM 2011)
PERSEFONA. Bílá místa v péči o oběti domácího násilí. Analýza systému pomoci obětem
domácího násilí s výstupy monitoringu . In: Konference „Bílá místa v péči o oběti domácího
násilí“ [online]. Brno: 31. 5. 2007. [cit. 2011-12-12].
Available at: http://persefona.cz/download/analyza_bila_mista.pdf
PULKRÁBKOVÁ, K. Rámování reprezentace romských žen v české společnosti. In:
Sociologický webzin [online].2009, č. 11, [cit. 2011-12-12]. ISSN 1214-1720.
METER Silesia. Projekt Evropské spolupráce ROMIPEN - Setkání a spolupráce světů
různých kultur [online]. Ostrava, 2002, [cit. 2011-12-12]. Available at:
http://romipen3.euweb.cz/Romipen-11-site.html
ŠIMÍKOVÁ, I. Domácí násilí v romských komunitách. In: Konference „Bílá místa v péči o
oběti domácího násilí“ [online]. Brno: 31. 5. 2007. [cit. 2011-07-12]. Available at:
http://persefona.cz/download/analyza_bila_mista.pdf
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