STOČ 2013 - STOČ FAI 2013

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STOČ 2013 - STOČ FAI 2013
Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
STOČ 2013
BIONICS: NATURAL NAVIGATION
Bartłomiej GÓRALSKI
AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering and Robotics, Department of Process Control
25. dubna 2013
FAI UTB ve Zlíně
STOČ 2013 - Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
25. dubna 2013, FAI UTB ve Zlíně
Klíčová slova: bioinspiration, flight navigation, robotics, drones
Anotace: Evolution supplied many species with the ability to navigate, the aim of this project
is to develop ways to naturally navigate by adapting and learning from nature.
First of all, a research was conducted to determine how animals such as: whales, birds and
insects are able to determine their exact position using Earth’s magnetic field. The most
effective system was then developed and subjected to tests.
In the future it will be used onboard an experimental airplane, in addition a GPS module will
also be added to enable control over the device.
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STOČ 2013 - Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
25. dubna 2013, FAI UTB ve Zlíně
Obsah
1.
2.
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 4
Nature’s way of navigating .................................................................................... 4
2.1. Insects………………………………………………………………………....4
2.2. Birds……………………………………………………………………………5
2.3. Fish……………………………………………………..……………………...5
2.4. Whales………………………………………………………………………....5
3.
Device conception………………………………..........................................6
4.
Field studies ........................................................................................................... 6
5.
Prototype ................................................................................................................ 7
6.
Working device ...................................................................................................... 7
7.
Conception of the positioning algorithm ............................................................... 7
8.
Possible applications .............................................................................................. 9
Literatura ........................................................................................................................... 9
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STOČ 2013 - Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
25. dubna 2013, FAI UTB ve Zlíně
1.
Introduction
Creating a nature-inspired navigation system is a challenging task. Living organisms are
incredibly complex and had millions of years to develop and perfect various methods of
determining their position. It only seems natural to focus on them in search of inspiration.
Nature’s way of navigating
The focus of this paragraph will be determining the most efficient and easy to implement
solution through careful observation of nature. Taking into account the massive amounts of
animals are able to navigate the research was limited to five groups: insects, birds, fish and
whales.
2.
2.1 Insects
Used sources: [1], [2] and [3].
Skylight compass
Many insects have the ability to determine their position using polarized light. Part of the
compound eye has the ability to perform compass tasks. That part has the ability to sense
polarized UV-light. That allows the insect to see mosaic of polarized light which is constant
and only changes when the creature changes position. Sufficient amount of light is needed to
be able to use this method of navigation.
The odometer
Insects have many ways of determining traveled distance. For example ants use pedometer –
in was proven in an experiment by manipulating their legs length.
Use of landmark information
The ability to determine position by remembering landmarks. By using an image-matching
mechanism ants can return to their nests even when placed 30 meters from the.
Magnetic compass
The ability to sense magnetic field is achieved by:
- cryptochromes – a blue light sensitive proteins
- greigite or magnetite – ferromagnetic compounds
This allows for detection of direction, polarization and strength of magnetic fields.
Integrating inclined paths
Allows for the create a home vector (shortest way back to the nest) by remembering the
covered path [1].
Navigation by the stars
Some insects are able to determine their position using stars. A dung beetle can travel on a
straight path only by seeing the glow of the Milky Way.
Pheromones
Insects excrete various chemical compounds. This compounds can mark the path to food, nest
or to inform other members of the spices of the need to attack an intruder.
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STOČ 2013 - Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
25. dubna 2013, FAI UTB ve Zlíně
2.2 Birds
Used sources: [4] and [5].
Skylight compass
Being able to see patterns of polarized light allows to determine the apparent position and
direction of flight. In addition birds also use a combination of internal clock and sun position
to navigate.
Magnetic Compass
By using same compounds as insects birds are able to sense Earth’s magnetic field. Cells
containing those compounds are found in brains, eyes or bills. By being imprinted by the
magnetic field of their place of origin pigeons are able to successfully return to it.
Use of landmark information
During yearly migrations routs birds are able to recognize various landmarks and so are able
to create a map of landmarks which is helpful in navigating through their journey.
Star Orientation
For night-migrating birds it is essential to be able to navigate by the star position and the
orientation of the constellations.
Learned Routes
Some species learn their migration routes from their parents and repeat them yearly.
2.3 Fish
Used sources: [6] and [7].
Magnetic Compass
Fish also use magnetic field sensing mechanism to navigate. In 2012 magnetic cells
containing magnetite were found in trout allowing them to determine their longitude and
latitude.
Smell
Many migrating species, such as salmons, are imprinted with the smell of their home river.
That allows them to return to it, after maturation, during migration cycle.
Skylight compass
The polarization patterns are also used to determine position though exactly how the fish
determine the distribution of polarized light, measure its angle, and use that information to
navigate is not yet known.
2.4 Whales
Used sources: [8] and [9].
Skylight compass and Star Orientation
There are theories that both skylight compass and star orientation may play an important role
in keeping whales on course.
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STOČ 2013 - Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
25. dubna 2013, FAI UTB ve Zlíně
Magnetic Compass
Many researchers believe that whales and have a magnetic sense that helps them to determine
their position. Cetaceans, the animal family to which whales belong, have magnetic-sensitive
in the of their eyes.
Use of landmark information
Whales depend on landmarks such as: drilling platforms, sea bottom shape and coast shape to
help them during navigation.
3.
Device conception
It is only logical to assume that natures solutions will be used by many organisms. The
easiest way to create a navigation system usable all over the globe will be to base it on a
magnetic sense so many species share. Of course that sense is never used on its own – all
animals use combinations of senses. But instead of using multiple sensors a Earth’s magnetic
field map will be implemented. Thanks to the combined venture by United States’ National
Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the United Kingdom’s Defence Geographic
Centre (DGC) a worlds magnetic model (WMM) was created [10]. It is an algorithm which
allows for the calculation of main components of the geomagnetic field in a given location.
4.
Field studies
On the 17th of April a field study in Niepołomice Forest was conducted to determine
the accuracy of the WMM and available magnetometer. Following data was collected:
Coordinates and altitude
50o2’3.5268’’N,
20o19’2.946’’E
218 m
50o2’4.1892’’N,
20o19’3.2232’’E
217 m
50o2’4.4882’’N,
20o19’2,802’’E
217 m
50o2’6,0036”N,
20o19’3,4572’’E
216 m
o
50 2’8,578’’N,
20o14’3,3972’’E
187 m
50o2’9,5424’’N,
20o14’0,9204’’E
187 m
50o2’8,4696’’N,
20o14’0,,5352’’E
187 m
Magnetic field components –
measured
Magnetic field components –
theoretical
[uT]
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
15,93
5,37
47,565
19,772
1,608
45,129
18,375
3,5
46,125
19,773
1,610
45,130
17
3,125
46,375
19,773
1,610
45,130
20,375
1,56
45,06
19,773
1,610
45,130
22,5
3,5
44,75
19,771
1,610
45,124
22
5,56
44,625
19,770
1,608
45,124
24,68
3,8
44,9
19,771
1,608
45,124
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STOČ 2013 - Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
25. dubna 2013, FAI UTB ve Zlíně
Tab.1: Gathered data
It was determined that build-in magnetometers used in smart phones do not have the
necessary accuracy and low noise level required to perform navigational tasks.
5. Prototype
To build a prototype of a working device a miniature 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer
model 536 will be used [11]. Connected to Arduino microcontroller through A/D converter.
The microcontroller will be used to interpret and send the data from magnetometer to PC.
This simple prototype should be able to determine the values of the main components of the
geomagnetic field. Then by manually using WMM software and comparing values a fix can
be established. During testing it is crucial to ensure that the device is properly orientated.
Obr.1: Prototype diagram
6.
Working device
In a ready to use device many changes will be implemented. Keyboard will be needed to
input starting and finishing points. An altimeter will be added for determining altitude.
Geographical coordinates will be displayed on an LCD and all of the calculations will be done
by the Arduino microcontroller.
Obr.2: Working device diagram
7.
Conception of the positioning algorithm
An algorithm responsible for calculating magnetic and geographical coordinates will be
taken out of the WMM software and used to determine position. For every point on the rout a
grid of magnetic and corresponding geographical coordinates will be created. Current values
from the magnetometer will be matched with the values in the grid thus determining position.
Girds have program specified size and number of calculated coordinates. They also overlap
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STOČ 2013 - Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
25. dubna 2013, FAI UTB ve Zlíně
each other to prevent the loosing of fix. Then, using magnetometer as a compass, a heading
towards the final point is displayed on the LCD.
Obr.3: Navigational grid
Obr.4: Using grids for navigation
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STOČ 2013 - Studentská tvůrčí a odborná činnost
25. dubna 2013, FAI UTB ve Zlíně
Obr.5: Diagram of the positioning algorithm
8.
Possible applications
The device is intended to be used as substitute for GPS onboard a drone. There it will be
put to a test and all problems that may arise will be worked out. It can also be used for
personal navigation in conditions were getting a GPS fix is impossible. It may also help to
understand how magnetic interference created by humans can affect animals – since it is
extremely sensitive and close in design.
Literatura
[1] http://www.esa.int/gsp/ACT/doc/BIO/ACT-RPR-BIO-2008-01-Bridge2Space-Seidl.pdf
[2] http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/6332212/ant_nav.pdf
[3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2013/jan/25/dung-beetles-navigate-stars
[4] http://birding.about.com/od/birdbehavior/a/How-Birds-Migrate.htm
[5] http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/183-how-do-birds-navigate.html
[6] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/10/fish-use-magnets-navigation-magneticcells_n_1661409.html
[7] ttp://www.icr.org/article/7060/
[8] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1378791/Map-No-thanks-Humpbackwhales-use-sun-moon-stars-navigate-ocean.html
[9] http://www.pbs.org/kqed/oceanadventures/episodes/whales/indepth-navigation.html
[10]
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/WMM/DoDWMM.shtml
[11]
http://www.appliedphysics.com/sites/default/files/documents/Model_536.pdf
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