InfLuence of ToLL esTabLIshmenT In czech RepubLIc on hauLeRs

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InfLuence of ToLL esTabLIshmenT In czech RepubLIc on hauLeRs
Logistyka i Transport
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
Petr Nachtigall*
Jaromír Široký**
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on
haulers price’s
The paper deals with calculation of influence of toll establishment on carriage in Czech Republic for domestic and foreign haulers. The outcome is just first and not very precise, because of small number of nodes
(towns). Further will be this volume put more precisely via add of nodes. This work is very time-consuming. This paper can be something like manual for haulers how to count influence of toll establishment.
1. Introduction
Since 1st of January 2006 we have in Czech Republic (further only CR) new system of toll drawings which is based on Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC). This system is obligatory for
vehicles buses with total weight over 12tons and implemented on chosen sections of motorways and
fast highways (see Picture 1). That ways were divided into toll stages which are bordered by toll points
(toll gates).
The height of toll tariff depends on number of axles and volume of emissions (EURO standard).
In the table 1 are those tariffs.
Table 1: View of tariffs used in CR [Kč]
Toll prices on highways and express ways
EURO 0 – 2
EURO 3 – 5
2
3
4+
2
3
4+
2,30
3,70
5,40
1,70
2,90
4,20
Source: www.premid.cz
* Ing. Petr Nachtigall, University of Pardubice
** Ing. Jaromír Široký, Ph.D., University of Pardubice
49
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
Logistyka i Transport
Picture 1: Map of road under toll in CR
Source: www.premid.cz
Each vehicle which is using paid route must have on board unit (OBU). The price of OBU is app.
1500 Kč and hauler can use 2 types of payment:
1.1.1 First of them (pre-pay) is advantageous to foreign haulers and to sporadic users. He is similar
to credit recharging system of the cell phone. User will give money to the OBU and after each
passage round toll gate is the credit lowered. Under 600 Crowns is driver informed that OBU
needs another recharge,
1.1.2 Second way (post-pay) is similar to fixed payment tariff by cell phone. Payments are made
in accounting periods for whole vehicles and whole kilometers traveled in previous period.
Most important difference between cell phones and toll system is in non saving money using
post-pay system.
In the toll system are nowadays registered app. 150 000 vehicles (90 000 in pre-pay mode and
60 000 in post-pay mode). Each hauler can also on web sites premid.cz on-line monitor instants of time
when their vehicle is passing the toll gate and he can see set up of the OBU, time of pass and price of
course. That was only short description of toll collecting system in Czech Republic. In the next lines will
be reflection over system elements and set-up of the system.
2. Possibilities for Czech Republic
System, which is used in Czech Republic, uses principle of microwave transmission and that
system was privileged before satellite systems. That system used to look suited for Czech Republic,
because of small volume of highways. Nowadays we see that our system will be extended for 1st class
roads, where is existing system uneconomic, because of large number of new toll gates and money for
maintenance. In the table 2 is proposal of toll prices on 1st class roads.
50
Logistyka i Transport
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
Table 2: Expected toll prices on 1st class routes
Toll prices on 1st class routes
Emission standard
EURO 0 – 2
EURO 3 – 5
Number of axles
2
3
4+
2
3
4+
Rate Kč/km
1,10
1,80
2,60
0,80
1,40
2,00
Source: http://www.schenker.cz
Annotation of both systems:
• DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication): Transmission of information is between road
facility and (RSE – Road Side Equipment) and on board unit (OBU). The communication is microwave band.
• GNSS–CN (Global Navigation Satellite Systems – Cellular Network): That system uses satellite
navigation for positioning and measuring of distance run, transmission of information goes over
telecommunication network.
Table 3: Advantages and disadvantages of both systems
DSRC
Advantages
Extensive use in Europe
Cheap OBU (app 1 500 Kč)
Easy implementation into praxis
Disadvantages
No compatibility with second system
Expensive infrastructure
Small perspectivity of other RTTT (Road-Transport and Traffic Telematics) applications
GNSS-CN
Advantages
Cheap ground infrastructure
High perspectivity of other RTTT applications
References from EU
Disadvantages
Expensive OBU (app 15 000 Kč)
Necessity of special control points
No practical experiences – system in Germany is
first application
Source: author
Next elements, which have impact on prices for use of road infrastructure has been set by government. Those are emission standard and number of axles. In the first case were vehicles divided into
2 groups: EURO 0 – 2 and EURO 3 – 5. That division de-motivates haulers out from buying of new
vehicles with EURO 4 or 5. Nowadays, they will pay the same toll for vehicle with EURO 3, 4 and 5. In
the second case are vehicles divided into three groups according to number of axles (up to 3, 4 and 5),
but the haulers motivation is similar to the first case (i.e. low), because semitrailer tractor has minimally
two axles. The semitrailer has one, two, but most frequently three axles (one is retractable). So that 90
% of semitrailer units will pay the most expensive toll. Regardless of possible differences for full and
empty semitrailers.
51
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
Logistyka i Transport
3. Financial impact on haulers
3.1. Selection of nodes (cities)
How was the impact of those changes on haulers? It depends on hauling distance and percentage
of hauling distance on paid traffic route. Next lines will answer for the question about average hauling
Table 4: Unified nodes
Number of
nodes
Final node
Unified
nodes
3
Františkovy Lázně
Aš
Františkovy
Lázně
Cheb
3
Tachov
Mariánské
Lázně
Tachov
Rozvadov
2
Karlovy Vary
Karlovy
Vary
Sokolov
3
Rokycany
Příbram
Rokycany
2
Domažlice
Domažlice
Folmava
3
Strakonice
Strakonice
Písek
Prachatice
5
České Budějovice
České
Budějovice
Český
Krumlov
Dolní Dvořiště
Jindřichův
Hradec
Tábor
6
Jihlava
Pelhřimov
Třebíč
Havlíčkův
Brod
Jihlava
Humpolec
5
Praha
Beroun
Praha
Kladno
Benešov
Rakovník
4
Pardubice
Pardubice
Chrudim
Hradec
Králové
Rychnov nad
Kněžnou
3
Náchod
Náchod
Trutnov
Královec
4
Liberec
Liberec
Jabolonec
nad Nisou
Habartice
Semily
6
Chomutov
Chomutov
Hora Sv.
Šebestiána
Žatec
Louny
Most
Kadaň
6
Ústí nad Labem
Ústí nad
Labem
Česká Lípa
Litoměřice
Děčín
Teplice
Cínovec
4
Mladá Boleslav
Mladá
Boleslav
Jičín
Mělník
Nymburk
2
Kolín
Kolín
Kutná Hora
2
Svitavy
Svitavy
Ústí nad
Orlicí
4
Jeseník
Jeseník
Mikulovice
Bruntál
Šumperk
6
Ostrava
Ostrava
Karviná
Frýdek –
Místek
Český
Těšín
Chalupki
Opava
4
Vsetín
Vsetín
Horní Bečva
Zlín
Nový Jičín
4
Olomouc
Olomouc
Kroměříž
Přerov
Prostějov
3
Uherské Hradiště
Uherské
Hradiště
Starý Hrozenkov
Hodonín
2
Hatě
Hatě
Znojmo
3
Brno
Brno
Blansko
2
Břeclav
Břeclav
Mikulov
52
Plzeň
Source: Author
Vyškov
Žďár nad
Sázavou
Logistyka i Transport
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
distance. Authors’ research came out from 91 largest cities and border checkpoints in Czech Republic 1.
First step of solution was reduction of nodes, cause matrix 91 to 91 has 8281 values (unreduced number
of nodes), so that some cities were unified into one node. Therefore resultant value is just suboptimum
which can be further improved. In the next table 4 are unified nodes.
After that reduction fairly good matrix 25 to 25 (225 values – reduced number of nodes) has been
set. Next step was matrix of minimal distances from internet server www.mapy.cz. Whereas the difference between distances A – B and B – A is small, they are called equate. Whole table is in supplement 1.
3.2. Matrix of paid toll
Next step of the solution was matrix of paid toll. Those values are in matrix in supplement 2.
Data were taken from web calculator on www.premid.cz for basic settings EURO 0-2 and 2 axles.
3.3. Matrix of rates of distances on paid routes to whole hauling distance
That step is very important for the solution, but without self predicative value. That table is in
supplement 3. The mathematic formula for that matrix is in formula 1:
p ij
xij =
where:xij
pij
pkm
dij
pkm
×100 [%] (1)
d ij
matrix of rates of distances on paid routes to whole hauling distance i – j,
matrix element from supplement 2,
toll per kilometer (2,3 Kč/km),
matrix elements from supplement 1.
3.4. Calculation of average hauling distance with nodes rating
The next to the last step is calculating average distance hauled on paid route with nodes rating
(that rating is first column from table 4. The formula 2 calculates new matrix with nodes rating. This
matrix is in the table in supplement 4:
xij* = xij × wi × w j
[-]
(2)
where:x*ij elements from matrix in supplement 4,
elements from matrix in supplement 3,
xij
wi, wj rating of node i and j.
Aš, Benešov, Beroun, Blansko, Brno, Bruntál, Břeclav, Cínovec, Česká Lípa, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Český
Těšín, Děčín, Dolní Dvořiště, Domažlice, Folmava, Františkovy Lázně, Frýdek – Místek, Habartice, Hatě, Havlíčkův
Brod, Hodonín, Hora Sv. Šebestiána, Horní Bečva, Hradec Králové, Humpolec, Chalupki, Cheb, Chomutov, Chrudim,
Jabolonec na Nisou, Jeseník, Jičín, Jihlava, Jindřichův Hradec, Kadaň, Karlovy Vary, Karviná, Kladno, Kolín, Královec,
Kroměříž, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Litoměřice, Louny, Mariánské Lázně, Mělník, Mikulov, Mikulovice, Mladá Boleslav,
Most, Náchod, Nový Jičín, Nymburk, Olomouc, Opava, Ostrava, Pardubice, Pelhřimov, Písek, Plzeň, Praha, Prachatice,
Prostějov, Přerov, Příbram, Rakovník, Rokycany, Rozvadov, Rychnov nad Kněžnou, Semily, Sokolov, Starý Hrozenkov,
Strakonice, Svitavy, Šumperk, Tábor, Tachov, Teplice, Trutnov, Třebíč, Uherské Hradiště, Ústí nad Labem, Ústí nad
Orlicí, Vsetín, Vyškov, Zlín, Znojmo, Žatec, Žďár nad Sázavou
1
53
Logistyka i Transport
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
The formula 3 is for calculation of average hauling distance hauled on paid route:
nr
i , j =1
2
*
ij
×100 [%]
n
−n
2
average hauling distance hauled on paid routes,
elements from matrix in supplement 4,
reduced number of nodes,
unreduced number of nodes.
dp =
where:dp
x*ij
n r
n
∑x
(3)
That way was calculated value 44 %. That means that during haul users goes approximately 44 %
on paid roads. So that we have to calculate average hauling distance for calculation of price rising.
3.5. Monetary value of toll implementation
The last step is only calculation of average hauling distance from matrix in supplement 1 according to formula 4:
nr
where:dD
dij
n r
n
dD =
∑d
i , j =1
2
ij
n
−n
2
[km]
(4)
average hauling distance,
elements from matrix in supplement 1,
reduced number of nodes,
unreduced number of nodes.
Resultant value of the calculation is 223,05 km. So that we haul on paid route at a medium:
d = dD x dp = 98km. The monetary value of toll implementation is in the table 5.
Table 5: Average paid toll
Average paid toll [Kč]
EURO 0 – 2
EURO 3 – 5
2
3
4+
2
3
4+
225
363
529
167
284
412
Source: Author
4. Conclusion
As mentioned about, calculated values are just a suboptimum, which will be further improved
by adding of nodes. However we can say that impact of toll implementation isn’t negligible and haulers
will count the toll towards their prices.
The paper was written under institutional research „Theory of transport systems”
(MSM 0021627505) University of Pardubice.
Recenzent: doc. Ing. Vaclav Cempirek
54
Brno
Hatě
Uherské
Hradiště
Olomouc
Vsetín
Ostrava
Jeseník
Svitavy
Kolín
Mladá
Boleslav
Ústí nad
Labem
Chomutov
Liberec
Náchod
Pardubice
Praha
Jihlava
České
Budějovice
Strakonice
Domažlice
Rokycany
Karlovy
Vary
Tachov
Františkovy Lázně
60
Tachov
82
68
105
133
Rokycany
48
Karlovy
Vary
87
81
83
169
135
185
Strakonice
121
59
110
Domaž
-lice
57
141
147
229
195
245
České
Budějovice
139
157
279
206
259
281
306
Jihlava
Supplement 1: Matrix of minimal distances [km]
125
148
115
156
83
131
158
178
Praha
107
91
202
218
264
191
244
267
291
Pardubice
65
150
154
292
260
306
233
286
308
333
Náchod
132
120
109
228
251
219
265
193
219
268
265
Liberec
165
258
217
98
228
251
182
161
103
56
124
104
Chomu-tov
64
97
225
184
91
216
239
203
243
170
120
192
166
Ústí
nad
Labem
85
144
51
118
99
64
183
206
174
220
148
179
223
225
Mladá
Boleslav
59
143
175
104
97
45
69
83
186
180
227
154
207
229
253
Kolín
209
120
112
231
336
367
246
111
179
264
217
326
373
419
346
399
422
446
Jeseník
159
262
294
174
92
73
190
103
214
231
346
273
326
348
373
Svitavy
116
176
290
330
466
482
347
218
243
381
264
392
410
531
458
511
534
558
Ostrava
74
195
158
272
312
448
465
329
246
229
363
247
375
392
513
441
494
516
540
Vsetín
82
100
97
72
186
226
370
387
243
160
139
286
169
297
314
435
363
416
438
462
Olomouc
75
60
140
187
146
238
337
368
384
385
239
217
283
167
295
312
433
360
413
436
460
Uherské
Hradiště
153
156
233
250
257
146
171
270
301
319
318
238
183
213
88
159
213
296
294
347
369
394
Hatě
79
80
81
163
180
177
67
163
262
296
312
243
160
139
204
92
220
237
361
288
341
364
388
Brno
61
94
66
132
130
229
236
134
215
314
345
362
362
227
193
260
144
272
289
410
338
391
413
437
Břeclav
Logistyka i Transport
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
55
56
Brno
Hatě
Uherské
Hradiště
Olomouc
Vsetín
Ostrava
Jeseník
Svitavy
Kolín
Mladá
Boleslav
Ústí nad
Labem
Chomutov
Liberec
Náchod
Pardubice
Praha
Jihlava
České
Budějovice
Strakonice
Domažlice
Rokycany
Karlovy
Vary
Tachov
Františkovy Lázně
15
Tachov
0
27,9
Karlovy
Vary
9,4
154,4
169,4
Rokycany
0
69,2
0
16,1
131,2
146,2
Strakonice
0
0
15
Domažlice
0
0
0
16,1
131,2
146,2
České
Budějovice
Supplement 2: Matrix of paid toll [Kč]
0
49,4
486,7
417,5
333,1
571,9
586,9
Jihlava
258,5
60,1
73,5
211,1
141,9
48,8
296,3
311,3
Praha
162,6
0
0
236,1
390,8
321,6
237,2
476
491
Pardubice
0
162,6
0
222,7
236,1
390,8
321,6
237,2
476
491
Náchod
25,5
25,2
198,7
457,2
258,8
272,2
426,9
357,7
273,3
512,1
527,1
Liberec
25,7
279,6
279,6
34,1
323,9
125,5
113,1
0
0
0
0
27,9
Chomu-tov
25,7
0
279,6
279,6
121,2
379,7
181,3
194,7
346,5
277,3
25,7
431,7
53,6
Ústí
nad
Labem
0
224,6
87,5
0
74,2
111,2
369,7
171,3
184,7
339,4
270,2
185,8
424,6
439,6
Mladá
Boleslav
8,5
213,9
213,9
96
41,5
41,5
96,9
0
0
170,4
325,1
255,9
171,5
410,3
425,3
Kolín
41,5
0
0
0
279,6
279,6
25,5
0
0
162,6
347,2
0
236,1
390,8
321,6
237,2
476
491
Jeseník
0
279,6
279,6
25,5
0
0
162,6
0
0
0
390,8
321,6
237,2
476
491
Svitavy
0
110
451,4
145,6
831,1
775,3
135,5
110
110
709,9
435,3
500,8
500,8
938,1
868,9
784,5
1023,3
1038,3
Ostrava
28,9
28,6
81,1
307,8
660,7
687,5
631,7
106,6
81,1
81,1
566,3
291,7
357,2
357,2
794,5
725,3
640,9
879,7
894,7
Vsetín
28,6
57,5
0
52,5
363,3
52,5
743
687,2
78
52,5
52,5
621,8
347,2
412,7
412,7
850
780,8
696,4
935,2
950,2
Olomouc
6,9
0
28,9
6,9
15,2
226,1
579
605,8
550
666,5
59,4
160,4
484,6
210
275,5
275,5
712,8
643,6
559,2
798
813
Uherské
Hradiště
84,8
222
166,5
310,1
222
46,8
0
352,9
379,7
323,9
440,4
0
0
258,5
0
0
0
486,7
417,5
333,1
571,9
586,9
Hatě
46,8
15,2
152,4
96,9
240,5
152,4
0
188,1
541
567,8
512
25,5
0
122,4
446,6
172
237,5
237,5
674,8
605,6
521,2
760
775
Brno
112,5
0
0
282,4
0
370,5
282,4
112,5
305,9
658
685,6
629,8
746,3
112,5
240,2
564,4
289,8
355,3
355,3
792,6
723,4
639
877,8
892,8
Břeclav
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
Logistyka i Transport
Brno
Hatě
Uherské
Hradiště
Olomouc
Vsetín
Ostrava
Jeseník
Svitavy
Kolín
Mladá
Boleslav
Ústí nad
Labem
Chomutov
Liberec
Náchod
Pardubice
Praha
Jihlava
České
Budějovice
Strakonice
Domažlice
Rokycany
Karlovy
Vary
Tachov
Františkovy Lázně
11
Tachov
82
0
4
55
Rokycany
25
Karlovy
Vary
0
37
0
4
42
34
Strakonice
0
0
6
Domažlice
0
0
0
3
29
26
České
Budějovice
0
14
76
88
56
88
83
Jihlava
90
18
28
59
74
16
82
76
Praha
66
0
0
47
64
73
42
78
73
Pardubice
0
47
0
33
39
56
60
36
67
64
Náchod
8
9
79
87
45
54
70
81
54
83
86
Liberec
7
47
56
15
62
22
27
0
0
0
0
12
Chomutov
17
0
54
66
58
76
33
42
62
71
9
98
14
Ústí
nad
Labem
0
68
75
0
33
76
88
36
46
67
79
45
83
85
Mladá
Boleslav
Supplement 3: Matrix of rates of distances on paid routes to whole hauling distance [%]
6
65
53
40
19
40
61
0
0
41
62
72
36
78
73
Kolín
0
0
46
41
6
0
0
37
0
0
0
49
51
32
59
57
Svitavy
27
0
0
68
19
78
70
17
22
20
81
72
56
53
77
82
67
83
81
Ostrava
9
0
36
33
5
0
0
27
70
0
28
41
40
26
49
48
Jeseník
17
6
22
49
92
67
59
14
14
15
68
51
41
40
67
72
56
74
72
Vsetín
15
25
0
32
85
10
87
77
14
14
16
95
89
41
40
67
72
73
93
89
Olomouc
4
0
9
2
5
41
75
72
62
75
11
32
74
55
60
57
85
94
59
80
77
Uherské
Hradiště
24
62
31
54
38
14
0
57
55
44
60
0
0
53
0
41
38
72
78
42
67
65
Hatě
26
8
82
26
58
37
0
50
90
83
71
5
0
38
95
81
0
0
71
62
66
91
87
Brno
80
0
0
93
0
70
52
37
62
91
86
76
90
22
54
94
88
47
44
81
91
71
92
89
Břeclav
Logistyka i Transport
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
57
58
Brno
Hatě
Uherské
Hradiště
Olomouc
Vsetín
Ostrava
Jeseník
Svitavy
Kolín
Mladá
Boleslav
Ústí nad
Labem
Chomutov
Liberec
Náchod
Pardubice
Praha
Jihlava
České
Budějovice
Strakonice
Domažlice
Rokycany
Karlovy
Vary
Tachov
Františkovy Lázně
58,7
Tachov
0,0
72,8
Karlovy
Vary
24,5
604,2
662,9
Rokycany
0,0
0,0
0,0
42,0
513,4
572,1
Strakonice
0,0
0,0
39,1
Domaž
-lice
0,0
0,0
0,0
70,0
855,7
953,5
České
Budějovice
0,0
140,4
1283,3
2331,6
1737,9
4475,7
4593,1
Jihlava
3371,7
613,5
654,4
1641,5
2296,9
212,2
1932,4
2030,2
Praha
1413,9
0,0
0,0
649,8
803,2
729,1
825,0
2483,5
2561,7
Pardubice
0,0
1060,4
0,0
1004,7
774,6
879,5
1031,6
618,8
1862,6
1921,3
Náchod
133,0
175,3
1727,8
4770,8
2618,0
1686,1
1714,6
2253,1
950,6
2671,8
2750,1
Liberec
268,2
2188,2
2917,6
444,8
5069,7
1637,0
1065,1
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
218,3
Chomutov
402,3
0,0
2188,2
2917,6
1580,9
5943,1
2483,5
1366,1
1197,8
1314,9
134,1
3378,5
419,5
Ústí
nad
Labem
0,0
2343,7
608,7
0,0
516,2
967,0
3857,7
1728,2
1124,3
1303,9
1619,3
646,3
2215,3
2293,6
Mladá
Boleslav
29,6
1116,0
1116,0
333,9
108,3
144,3
421,3
0,0
0,0
429,7
548,0
641,6
298,3
1070,3
1109,5
Kolín
144,3
0,0
0,0
0,0
2917,6
2917,6
177,4
0,0
0,0
1413,9
3623,0
0,0
762,9
1122,5
1323,9
825,0
2483,5
2561,7
Jeseník
0,0
1458,8
1458,8
88,7
0,0
0,0
707,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
445,9
473,3
412,5
1241,7
1280,9
Svitavy
Supplement 4: Matrix of rates of distances on paid routes to whole hauling distance with nodes rating
0,0
573,9
2355,1
1519,3
13008,5
12135,1
1413,9
860,9
1147,8
9259,6
6813,4
5432,4
3565,6
3862,1
5137,2
4093,0
8008,4
8125,8
Ostrava
301,6
199,0
282,1
1070,6
4596,2
7173,9
6591,7
741,6
423,1
564,2
4924,3
3043,8
3246,9
1949,2
2860,4
3930,0
2229,2
4589,7
4668,0
Vsetín
0,0
199,0
36,0
226,2
36,0
39,7
589,8
3020,9
4741,0
4304,3
3477,4
232,4
836,9
3160,4
1643,5
2691,5
1614,9
2217,4
3055,3
1458,8
3122,6
3181,3
Uherské
Hradiště
600,0
0,0
182,6
1263,7
365,2
7753,0
7170,8
542,6
273,9
365,2
5407,0
3623,0
3106,1
1863,7
2763,5
3784,2
2422,3
4879,3
4957,6
Olomouc
221,2
772,2
579,1
1617,9
772,2
81,4
0,0
1227,5
1981,0
1689,9
1531,8
0,0
0,0
1123,9
0,0
1197,8
718,7
1239,7
1679,0
579,3
1491,9
1531,0
Hatě
122,1
59,5
795,1
505,6
1882,2
795,1
0,0
490,7
2822,6
4443,7
4007,0
133,0
0,0
638,6
2912,6
1346,1
0,0
0,0
1269,7
1633,7
1359,7
2973,9
3032,6
Brno
293,5
0,0
0,0
982,3
0,0
1933,0
982,3
195,7
532,0
2288,7
3577,0
3285,9
2595,8
293,5
835,5
2453,9
1512,0
1032,6
619,6
1173,6
1579,8
1111,3
2289,9
2329,0
Břeclav
Influence of toll establishment in Czech Republic on haulers price’s
Logistyka i Transport

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