A. Disability Sports or disabled sports are played by

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A. Disability Sports or disabled sports are played by
EFL4/3 DISABLED SPORTS AND ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION Text + listening
A. Disability Sports or disabled sports are played by persons with a physical and/or
intellectual disability. Many of these sports are based on existing sports but modified to meet
the needs of persons with disabilities. They are also referred to as adapted sports. However,
not all disabled sports are adapted. While sport has value in everyone's life, it is even more
important in the life of a person with a disability. This is because of the rehabilitative
influence that sport can have not only on the physical body but also on the social aspect.
Furthermore, sports teaches independence. Nowadays, people with a disability participate in
high performance as well as in competitive and recreational sport.
The number of people with disabilities involved in sport and physical recreation is steadily
increasing around the world. The sports are organized for athletes with disabilities who are
divided into three main disability groups. There are three such categories of sport:
 sports for the deaf
 sports for persons with physical disabilities
 sports for persons with intellectual disabilities
Organisations supporting physical activity for the disabled:
1. Paralympic Games
2. Deaflympics
3. Special Olympics
1. THE PARALYMPIC GAMES (PG)
The Paralympic Games are multi-sport event for athletes with physical, mental and
sensorial disabilities. This includes mobility disabilities, amputees, visual disabilities and
those with cerebral palsy. The PG are held every four years, following the Olympic Games,
and are governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). The PGs are
sometimes confused with the Special Olympics, which are only for people with intellectual
disabilities.
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When did the PG first start?
The Paralympics first started in 1948 when a sports competition which gathered World
War 2 veterans who suffered from spinal injuries was organized. Afterwards a similar event
was organized in Toronto. Canada was a success because of classifying more and different
disability groups and also because of merging together and taking part in athletic sports.
The name derives from the Greek "para" ("beside" or "alongside") and thus refers to a
competition held in parallel with the Olympic Games. No relation with paralysis or paraplegia
is intended, however, the word Paralympic was originally a blend combining 'paraplegic' and
'Olympic'.
The number of athletes participating in Summer PG have increased from 400 athletes
from 23 countries in Rome in 1960 to 3806 athletes from 136 countries in Athens in 2004.
The IPC organizes the Summer and Winter PG, and serves as the International Federation for
nine sports, for which it supervises and co-ordinates the World Championships and other
competitions.
The Summer and Winter PG are the ultimate international competitions for world class
athletes with a disability. They are linked to the Olympic celebrations every two years and
athletes must meet strict qualifying standards in order to compete.
Disability Category Definitions for PG:
(These categories apply to both summer and winter Paralympics.)
Amputee: Athletes with a partial or total loss of at least one limb.
Cerebral Palsy: Athletes with non-progressive brain damage, for example cerebral palsy,
traumatic brain injury, stroke or similar disabilities affecting muscle control, balance or
coordination.
Intellectual Disability: Athletes with a significant impairment in intellectual functioning and
associated limitations in adaptive behaviour (suspended after Sydney 2000; swimming, table
tennis and some athletics disciplines were included in London 2012).
Wheelchair: Athletes with spinal cord injuries and other disabilities which require them to
compete in a wheelchair.
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Visually Impaired: Athletes with vision impairment ranging from partial vision, sufficient to
be judged legally blind, to total blindness.
2. DEAFLYMPICS
Motto of Deaflympics: Equality through sport.
The Deaflympics are held every 4 years, and are the longest running
multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves. They were also the first
ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability held in 1924
in Paris.
To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their
"better ear". Hearing aids are not allowed to be used in competition in order to place all
athletes on the same level.
There are specific rules and habits used to participate on the Deaflympics or any other
competitions
for
the
deaf.
For
example,
the
football
referees
wave
a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a
starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather
to wave – usually with both hands.
3. THE SPECIAL OLYMPICS (SO)
Let me win but if I cannot win, let me be brave in the attempt.
(motto of Special Olympic Games)
Dovol mi vyhrát, ale pokud nedokážu zvítězit, dej mi odvahu,
abych se pokusil.
(heslo Speciálních Olympiád)
About the Special Olympics
There has been a major increase in opportunities for sports and physical activities for persons
with mental retardation. This is due in large part to the efforts of groups like the Special
Olympics. In 1968, the first SO were held in Chicago (see Eunice Shriver). About 1,000
people took part. Today, it is estimated that more than 3 million people from 180 countries
take part in the SO. SO athletes embrace (v sobě zahrnovat) the concept that sports are played
for the love of the game. Competition is a reward. SO athletes represent the true Olympic
ideal.
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In the SO, athletes are matched for competition. The match is based upon their levels of
physical and mental ability. The Motor Training Program of the Special Olympics is made for
severely disabled athletes. It focuses on taking part. It doesn't focus on competing (on the
contrary to the Paralympic Games). These athletes take part in special events. Their
competition is measured against their personal best.
The Special Olympics stress the joy that comes with physical activity and competition. It tries
to make every athlete a winner. This approach is shown by its motto. It reads: "Let me win,
but if I cannot win, let me be brave in my attempt."
Eligibility for Participation in the Special Olympics
All persons with mental retardation should be encouraged to participate in some sport or form
of physical activity.
Local chapters (pobočky) of SO can be found throughout the world. They give support for the
development of appropriate exercise programs to the families and caregivers of persons with
mental retardation. Being eligible for the Special Olympics depends upon being diagnosed
with mental retardation. It is limited to people older than 8 years of age.
B. ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Adapted physical education is a designed physical education instructional program for a
learner with a disability, based on a comprehensive assessment, to give the learner the skills
which are important for a lifetime of rich leisure, recreation, and sport experiences to gain
physical fitness and wellness.
Adapted physical education (APE) is physical education which may be adapted or modified
to the needs of children and youth who have gross motor developmental delays. This service
should include the following:
Instruction in a Least Restricted Environment (LRE) refers to adapting or modifying the
physical education curriculum and/or instruction to the abilities of each child. Adaptations are
made to ensure that each student will experience success in a safe environment.
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For all practical purposes, APE involves differentiating instruction so the physical activity is
as appropriate for the person with a disabiity as it is for a person without
disability. The emphasis of adapted physical education is to facilitate participation of students
with disabilities with typically developing peers in age-appropriate activities.
TYPES OF DISABILITIES
The following provides a brief description of disability areas.
Orthopedic/ Mobility Impairments
Inborn (vrozený) conditions, accidents or progressive
neuromuscular diseases can result in a variety of
orthopedic/mobility-related
disabilities
include
for
disabilities.
example
Such
paraplegia,
quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy,
amputation, multiple sclerosis, paralysis, cardiac
conditions and stroke.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Head injury is one of the fastest growing types of disabilities, especially in 15-28 year olds. In
more than 500,000 cases each year, people are hospitalized from head trauma. The life
functions that may be affected include: memory, communication, speed of thinking,
communications, psychosocial behaviours, motor abilities, sensory perception and physical
abilities.
Blindness/Visual Impairments
Approximately 80 percent of all legally blind individuals have some usable vision. The
visually-impaired students should be offered adaptive equipment and software for use.
Deafness/Hearing Impairments
Students who are deaf or hard of hearing should be supported through services and auxiliary
devices like quality professional interpreters.
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Communication is to be provided for hearing-impaired students in their preferred mode.
Whether a student uses speech/lip-reading, signed English or American Sign Language
depends on an agreement.
Other Disabilities
Many students have disabilities that are less visible and do not fall into the other categories.
Often prescribed medications may reduce student's ability to process information quickly or
may impair his/her academic performance. Common side effects of medications are loss of
concentration, fatigue, memory loss and shortened attention span.
Less visible disabilities include AIDS, asthma, cancer, chronic pain, diabetes, epilepsy,
psychological disorders.
International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH)
according to European Charter on Sport for All: Disabled Persons (adopted by the
Committee of Ministers on 4 December 1986)
The 1980 ICIDH provides a conceptual framework for disability which is described in three
dimensions:
-
Impairment
-
Disability
-
Handicap
Impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical
structure or function.
Impairment occurs at the level of organ or system function. Assessment of impairment
requires judgment of mental and physical functioning of the body according to accepted
standards.
Disability is any restriction or lack, resulting from an impairment, of ability to perform an
activity in the manner which is normal for a human being.
Disability is concerned with performance or an activity, and limitations affecting the
whole person. The disability influence attempts to practise activities important in daily life.
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Handicap is a disadvantage for an individual which results from an impairment or a disability
and limits or prevents the fulfilment of a role that is normal for that individual.
Handicap focuses on the person as a social being and reflects the interaction with and
adaptation to the person’s surroundings. The handicap influences attempts to cope with
consequences which place that individual at a disadvantage in relation to their peers.
The classification system for handicap comprises a group of ‘survival roles’, with each
survival role having an associated scaling factor to indicate impact on the individual’s life.
VADA (PORUCHA) je jakákoliv ztráta nebo abnormalita psychické, fyziologické nebo
anatomické struktury nebo funkce.
POSTIŽENÍ je jakékoliv omezení nebo nedostatek schopnosti (jako důsledek poruchy)
jednat, či vykonat činnost způsobem nebo v rozsahu, považovaném pro člověka za normální.
HANDICAP (oslabení) je nevýhoda, znevýhodnění určitého jedince, vyplývající z jeho
poruchy, či postižení, které pak omezuje nebo zabraňuje splnění určité normální role, která se
od tohoto jedince očekává (v souvislosti s věkem, pohlavím, sociálními a kulturními
hledisky).
A. VOCABULARY:
impairment
vada (porucha)
disability
postižení
handicap
hendikep, oslabení, nevýhoda
able-bodied (athletes)
zdraví, ´normální´ (sportovci)
access to
přístup k/do
accident
úraz, nehoda
adapt to, adaptation to
adaptovat se na/vůči, adaptace na/vůči
adaptations, adjustments
přizpůsobení, úpravy
amputation; amputee
amputace, odříznutí; osoba s amputovanou
končetinou, ´amputář´
barriers; ~ to participation
bariéry, překážky; překážky v účasti/účastnit
se
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be disabled in
být postižený, omezený v
blind, ~ person
slepý, ~á osoba
capacity; mental / physical ~
schopnost, kapacita; mentální, duševní /
tělesná, fyzická ~, schopnost
carry out certain tasks
provádět, uskutečňovat určité úkoly
cerebral palsy
dětská mozková obrna
compensate for impairments
kompenzovat postižení
deaf, deaf person, ~ man/ woman
hluchý, neslyšící
deaf-mute, deaf-and-dumb
hluchoněmý
deficiency; mental ~
nedostatek, vada; duševní porucha,
slabomyslnost
disease
nemoc, choroba
disorder; organic ~, functional ~
porucha, potíže; organická ~, funkční ~
disorders – physical, organic, emotional,
poruchy – tělesné, organické, emoční,
sensory, mental, learning, speech
smyslové, duševní, v učení, řečové
environment, family ~
prostředí, rodinné ~
experience success
zažít úspěch
inclusion / exclusion
inkluze, zahrnutí / exkluze, vyloučení
integrate / segregation, integration /
integrovat, včlenit / segregovat, oddělovat,
segregation
integrace, začlenění / segregace, oddělování
improve physical skills
zlepšit, vylepšit tělesné dovednosti
increase social contacts
výšit společenské kontakty, styky
involvement in sport
účast ve sportu, zahrnutí do sportu
lesion
léze, výhřez; poškození
medical classification
zdravotní klasifikace
mobility
pohyblivost
mute
němý
nature of the disability
povaha postižení
opportunity, few opportunities
příležitost, málo příležitostí
Paralympics – for elite athletes with physical
Paralympiáda – pro vrcholové sportovce
or visual impairments
s tělesnými či zrakovými poruchami
paralyse
ochrnout, ochromit, paralyzovat
paralysis
ochrnutí, obrna, paralýza
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paraplegic
paraplegik, paraplegický
participate in certain activities
účastnit se určitých činností
permanent disability
trvalé postižení
permit access to
povolit přístup do/na
prejudice, patterned prejudices
předsudek, zažité předsudky
respect for somebody´s effort
uznání, respekt za něčí snahu
retarded athletes
mentálně postižení sportovci
relationship, ~s
vztah, ~y
restriction; restrict
omezení; omezit, limitovat
rules; conventional ~, adapted ~
pravidla; běžná, konvenční ~, upravená ~
quadriplegic
tetraplegik, tetraplegický / kvadruplegik,
kvadruplegický
social attitudes
společenské postoje
SOG, Special Olympics
SOH, Speciální olympiáda
speech impaired
řečově postižený, němý
spinal paralysis
ochrnutí páteře
stammer
koktat
stutter
zadrhávat v řeči
trauma
trauma, úraz
treat somebody as inferior
chovat se, jednat s někým jako s podřadným
undermine somebody´s status
podrývat, podkopávat něčí postavení, prestiž
volunteer
dobrovolník, dobrovolný pomocník
wheelchair
invalidní vozík
wheelchair basketball
basketbal na vozíku
B. QUIZ. Test yourself!
1. The Special Olympics are exclusively meant for
athletes:
a. with visual impairment
b. intellectual disability
c. amputations
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2. The SO Games aim is enhance athletes’
a. education
b. participation
c. top performance
3. The IPC stands for:
a. International Paralympic Committee
b. International Parasymptomatic Council
c. International Paralympic Collaboration
4. Which athletes have the right to participate at the Paralympic Games:
a. with intellectual disability and hearing impairments
b. with mobility disability, amputations, and cerebral palsy
c. with visual disability, amputations, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation
5. The late Madam Eunice Shriver, a long-term patron of SO, was:
a. the wife of the U.S. President R. Reagan
b. the daughter of the U.S. President F.D. Roosevelt
c. the sister of the U.S. President J.F. Kennedy
6. The Paralympics are held parallelly with (right after) the:
a. summer and winter World Championships
b. summer and winter Olympic Games
c. summer and winter World Sports Festivals
7. The Paralympic Games competitions for intellectually disabled athletes were
taken off the programme after the Sydney SOG scandal because:
a. the Spanish basketball team cheated with normal players
b. the Mongolian swimmers couldn’t swim, two of them drowned
c. the U.S. sprinters doped having used anabolic steroids
8. The LRE stands for:
a. little retrieval environment
b. less reflective education
c. least restricted environment
9. Captionist help the deaf students:
a. to interpret their speeches
b. to make subtitles on films and videos
c. to capture films or videos
10. The classification system for handicap:
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a. is hierarchical
b. is not hierarchical
c. is not hierarchical but allows for social roles which may have impact on one’s
life
Check your answers: 1b, 2b, 3a, 4b, 5c, 6b, 7a, 8c, 9b, 10c
C. Problem questions and tasks for group presentations
1. Assess the essence and value of the disabled sports for the life of a disabled person.
a. Select one asset out of various benefits a sport may have on a sport
engaged person and account for why that was your pick.
b. Describe both-sided impacts which the disabled persons’ integration into
society brings.
2. Give a short list of different types of disabilities and explain the difficulties the
disabled encounter along with the solutions and accomodations which can help.
a. What do the disabled people find as the biggest barriers for them (access,
social and economic aspects, others).
3. Draw a pie chart of the Paralympic Games disabilities categories.
a. Find numbers of active competitors at the last 3 Paralympic Games.
b. Compare the Czech Republic and the rest of the world at PGs (our
successful or traditional sports, final standings, and/or medals).
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