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04 zajic
ACTA MUSEI REGINAEHRADECENSIS S. A., 32 (2007): 11-16
ISBN: 978-80-85031-73-7
Carboniferous Fauna of the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin
Karbonská fauna podkrkono‰ské pánve
Jaroslav Zajíc
Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Rozvojová 269,
165 00 Praha 6 - Lysolaje, Czech Republic. [email protected]
Abstract:The complete faunal list has been completed for the Upper Carboniferous lake deposits of the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin. Fauna-bearing
sites and boreholes of the PlouÏnice lake are divided into two main areas and two subareas on the basis of their sedimentary facies and faunal content.
Stratigraphy and inter-basin correlations are discussed.
K e y w o r d s : faunal list, palaeogeography, palaeoenvironment, stratigraphy, Upper Carboniferous, Bohemian Massif.
INTRODUCTION
The Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin (Fig. 2) belongs to a
system of post-orogenic extensional/transitional basins
which formed in the Bohemian Massif (Fig. 1) in the early
post-orogenic phase (Martínek et al. 2006). Northern and
southern regions of the basin often differ in their lithological development. The main Permo-Carboniferous fossilbearing strata of the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin were traditionally called horizons until recently. The nature of the
main ones (such as the PlouÏnice, Rudník, and Kalná
Horizons) is, however, totally different. Their usual thickness of several tens of meters suggests that they represent
members, not horizons. Recent papers concerning the Permian sediments referred to “horizons”, such as the Kalná
Lake deposits (Blecha, Martínek & Mihaljeviã 1999) or
the Rudník Member (Martínek et al. 2006). This paper
uses the term “lake deposits” because no exact definitions
of members have been provided yet for the Carboniferous
“horizons” of the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin. For a simplified geological map of the basin, see Fig. 2. Carboniferous sediments of the basin are divided into three sections
– the Kumburk, Syfienov, and Semily Formations (see Fig.
3). No fauna has been reported from the Kumburk Formation. The generally known fauna of the Syfienov Formation still comes from the Lt-1 Lib‰tát borehole but its
significance for stratigraphic correlation with other basins
of the Czech Republic is substantial. The richest fauna (in
both specimens and taxa) is known from the youngest
Carboniferous.
This paper was prepared within the IGCP project 491
- Middle Palaeozoic Vertebrate Biogeography, Palaeogeography, and Climate. Herein presented data concerning
the Gzhelian age are mostly based on the unpublished
final report (Blecha et al. 1997) of the grant project No.
205/94/0692 (Environmental changes on the Carboniferous/Permian boundary and their impact on the assem-
Fig. 1. Location of the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin (black, simplified) in
the Czech Republic (dash-and-dot line) and in the Bohemian Massif
(continuous line).
blages of organisms in fossiliferous horizons in the
Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin ) of the Czech Science Foundation. Other data were summarized and shortly published by Zajíc in Pe‰ek et al. (2001) as a result of the grant
project No. 205/96/1231 (Origin and sedimentary filling
of the limnic Permo-Carboniferous basins in the Bohemian Massif) supported by the same grant agency.
Recent investigations (e. g. ·tamberg 2001) yielded
additional or corrected data.
The fauna-bearing localities and boreholes are supplemented with sheets of maps 1: 25,000 in parentheses. No
faunal remains come from the Kumburk Formation yet.
The Syfienov Formation
The Lower Syfienov Formation, Kasimovian (Stephanian B)
The only known fauna of this section comes from the
lowermost part of the formation. The lacustrine origin of
these sediments is assumed. No fauna is known from the
overlying Syfienov Coal Seams.
11
12
Fig. 2. A simplified geological map of the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin (based on Blecha et al. 1997; Fig. 4.1.) with palaeogeography of the PlouÏnice
and ·tûpanice-âikvásky lake deposits. The Hk-1 Horní Kalná borehole represents a distant subarea of the ·tûpanice-âikvásky area, the site of Nová
Paka – aerodrome represents a special subarea of the PlouÏnice area. Numbers of sites in both areas are simplified.
Locality:
* Lt-1 Lib‰tát borehole (03-413 Semily); depth 860.60 m;
(Zajíc 1986, Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997) Elonichthys sp.
(scales)
The Black Shales Lake Deposits of the Upper Formation, Gzhelian (Stephanian B)
The thickness of the deposits is 13–23 m (Prouza &
Tásler in Pe‰ek et al. 2001). The finely laminated deepwater claystones were sedimentologically paralleled with
the M‰ec Member (Central and Western Bohemian
Basins) and the Jívka Member (Intra-Sudetic Basin) by
Skoãek (1990). The correlation with the large and deep
M‰ec Lake is in accordance with the faunal content. A
reinterpretation of the determinable actinopterygian scales
from the Lt-1 Lib‰tát borehole was made by Zajíc in
Pe‰ek et al. (2001)
Locality:
* Lt-1 Lib‰tát borehole (03-413 Semily); depth
795.10–807.25 m; (Zajíc 1986; Zajíc in Blecha et al.
1997, Zajíc in Pe‰ek et al. 2001) Spinarichthys dispersus
(scales); Zaborichthys fragmentalis (scales); Elonichthys
sp. (scales); Actinopterygii indet. (scales, teeth)
The Semily Formation
Lacustrine deposits of the Middle Semily Formation
are represented by two different facies (see chapter Palaeogeography of the PlouÏnice Lake).
·tûpanice-âikvásky Lake Deposits (northern area of
the basin), Gzhelian (Stephanian C)
Member is formed by two or three intervals of a complete thickness of 95–130 m including intercalated strata
(Prouza & Tásler in Pe‰ek et al. 2001). Coal seams are
locally present. For the location of the adits see Havlena
(1957, Fig. 2).
Localities:
* HK-1 Horní Kalná borehole (03-413 Semily); depth
899.15 m; (Zajíc 1984; Zajíc 1989; Zajíc in Blecha et al.
1997)
Acanthodes sp. (fin spine); Actinopterygii indet. (scales, fulcrum)
* Ko‰Èálov – dump of the Nadûje adit (03-413 Semily);
(Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Sphaerolepis kounoviensis (scales); Spinarichthys dispersus (scales); Actinopterygii indet. (scales, bone fragments); coprolites
* Kouty – dump of the Adolf and Glück adits (03-413
Semily); (Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Sphaerolepis kounoviensis (scales)
* Kv-1 Ko‰Èálov borehole (03-413 Semily); depth
499.90–500.00 m; (Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
ostracodes „Carbonita“ sp.; Sphaerolepis kounoviensis
(scales); Actinopterygii indet. (bone fragments, a tooth,
scales, fulcra, segments of lepidotrichia); coprolites
* Lt-1 Lib‰tát borehole (03-413 Semily); depth 727.50
m; (Zajíc 1986; Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997, Zajíc in Pe‰ek
et al. 2001)
Elonichthys sp. (scale); Actinopterygii indet. (scales,
fulcrum); coprolite
* Nedvûzí – dump of the Otto adit (03-413 Semily);
(Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
ostracodes „Carbonita“ sp.; Acanthodes sp. (fin spines); Sphaerolepis kounoviensis (scales, bone fragments);
Actinopterygii indet. (scales, bone fragments); coprolites
* Nedvûzí – dump of the Rohan adit (03-413 Semily);
(Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Sphaerolepis kounoviensis (parasphenoid, scales); Spi-
Fig. 3. Upper Carboniferous of the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin: age, lithostratigraphy and local bio/eco zonation.
13
narichthys dispersus (scales); Actinopterygii indet. (scales, bone fragments); coprolites
PlouÏnice Lake Deposits (southern area of the basin),
Gzhelian (Stephanian C)
The member consist of two intervals, each 10–60 m
thick, and one intercalated stratum 10–30 m thick (Prouza
& Tásler in Pe‰ek et al. 2001).
* Bradlecká Lhota – Zlatník wood (03-431 Lomnice
nad Popelkou); (Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997); specimens
are deposited in the National Museum in Prague.
Actinopterygii indet. (scales)
* Krsmol (03-431 Lomnice nad Popelkou); (Fritsch
1901; Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997; ·tamberg 2001)
This locality was probably erroneously named Kromle
in the Czech version of the Fritsch’s paper (Fritsch 1901).
Carbonicola bohemica (unrevised name); Arthrolycosa
sp.; Insecta indet. (wings); Turnovichthys magnus (a fin
spine fragment); Bohemiacanthus sp. (tooth); Sphaerolepis kounoviensis (scales)
* Kyje – railroad cut, 11.55 m of the section described
in Blecha et al. 1997 (03-431 Lomnice nad Popelkou);
(Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Amphisauropus cf. intermedius (tetrapod footprints)
* Kyje – railroad cut with no detailed location (03-431
Lomnice nad Popelkou); (Friã 1912; Schneider 1983;
Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Spiloblattina lawrenceana (wings or wing fragments);
Sysciophlebia rubida (wings or wing fragments); Neorthroblattina cf. multineuria (wings or wing fragments);
Anthracoblattina sp. (wings or wing fragments); Protritonichnites lacertoides (tetrapod footprints)
* Nová Paka – aerodrome (03-432 Nová Paka);
(Kamarád 1959; Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Lioestheria paupera (after Kamarád 1959; including
juveniles); Insecta indet. (wings)
* Nová Ves nad Popelkou – a field near Îìár u Kumburku (03-431 Lomnice nad Popelkou) (new unpublished
finds of Mr. Lapacík)
Sphaerolepis kounoviensis (scale); Actinopterygii
indet. (fulcra)
* PlouÏnice – a railroad cut A, 0–1.3 m of the section
described in Blecha et al. 1997 (03-431 Lomnice nad
Popelkou); (Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Actinopterygii indet. (scales, fulcra, bone fragments)
* PlouÏnice – a railroad cut C, 2.9–3.5 m of the section
described in Blecha et al. 1997 (03-431 Lomnice nad
Popelkou); (Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Sphenacanthus sp. (scales); Progyrolepis speciosus
(tooth); Actinopterygii indet. (scales, fulcra); xenacanthid
spiral coprolites; coprolites
* PlouÏnice – a railroad cut, ·imÛnek’s excavation No. 1
in 1996 (03-431 Lomnice nad Popelkou); (Zajíc in Blecha
et al. 1997)
Sphenacanthus sp. (scale); ?Progyrolepis speciosus (a
tooth fragment); Actinopterygii indet. (scales, fulcra, segments of lepidotrichia); xenacanthid spiral coprolites;
coprolites
* PlouÏnice – a railroad cut with no detailed location
14
(03-431 Lomnice nad Popelkou); (Friã 1912; Kamarád
1951; Schneider 1983; Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Pseudestheria tenella; ?Lioestheria paupera; Neorthroblattina germari; Acanthodes sp. (fin spines, scales);
Sphenacanthus sp. (scales); xenacanthids (tooth fragments, spine fragments, calcified cartilage fragments);
Sphaerolepis kounoviensis (scales); Elonichthys sp. (a
scale); Progyrolepis speciosus (a tooth); Zaborichthys
fragmentalis (a scale); Actinopterygii indet. (bone fragments, teeth, scales, fulcra, segments of lepidotrichia);
branchiosaurids (vertebrae, bone fragments); a xenacanthid spiral coprolite; coprolites; Amphisauropus intermedius (tetrapod footprints); Ichnotherium cottae (tetrapod
footprints); Protritonichnites lacertoides (tetrapod footprints)
* PlouÏnice – milestone 60.5 in the railroad cut (03-431
Lomnice nad Popelkou); (Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Sphaerolepis kounoviensis (scales), Elonichthys sp.
(scales), Actinopterygii indet. (bone fragments, scales,
fulcra, segments of lepidotrichia); coprolites
* Stará Paka – Pfiíãnice (03-432 Nová Paka); (Friã
1912; Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Actinopterygii indet. (whole unidentified specimen,
scales)
* Îìár u Kumburku – Smíta (03-431 Lomnice nad
Popelkou); (Kamarád 1959; Zajíc in Blecha et al. 1997)
Lioestheria paupera, Actinopterygii indet. (scales);
Insecta indet. (wings)
PALAEOGEOGRAPHY OF THE PLOUÎNICE LAKE
The PlouÏnice Lake extended over almost the whole
area of the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin (about 150 km2) and
probably reached to the Mnichovo Hradi‰tû Basin (Tásler
& Prouza 1985). The known fauna-bearing sites are divided into two main areas (see Fig. 2) each with one locality with somewhat different development. The sedimentary facies were established by Blecha & Martínek in Blecha et al. (1997).
·tûpanice-âikvásky area (northern part of the
basin)
The presence of suboxic and anoxic offshore facies (grey
and blackish grey finely laminated mudstones and organicrich carbonates), conglomerates, and sandstones are characteristic for the northern part of the basin. A relatively deep
lake and a steeper gradient of the bottom are assumed here.
The paludal nearshore conditions (swamps) and the water
level oscillation induced the origin of thin coal seams.
Fauna of this area comes from dark grey siltstones,
dark grey laminated mudstones and blackish grey finely
laminated mudstones with coal laminae. Disarticulation of
the fish remains together with the type of sedimentation
correspond to the hypolimnion of a shallower stratified
lake. The insect remains found at some sites possibly indicate a relative proximity of the lake shore.
The HK-1 Horní Kalná borehole lies at a considerably
distance from other sites of the northern area. Disarticulated
fish remains from the blackish grey laminated claystone
evidence poorly aerated water conditions near the bottom.
PlouÏnice area (southern part of the basin)
The southern part of the basin has a platform-like character with a low gradient. The plain relief induced considerable lateral variations of sedimentary conditions.
The facies of the brown mudstone with traces of lamination (typically in section PlouÏnice A) indicates conditions of a shallow lake with relatively well aerated water
near the bottom (an epilimnion of a stratified lake).
The facies of the purplish brown or grey finely laminated mudstone (typically in section PlouÏnice C) indicates
lacustrine environment with well aerated water near the
bottom.
Tetrapod footprints from the facies of the grey laminated siltstone (Kyje) indicate temporary terrestrial conditions.
The site of Nová Paka – aerodrome yielded common
conchostracans together with insect wing remains. This
association suggests a shallower epilimnion of a stratified
lake close to the shoreline. Abundant conchostracans possibly imply repeated episodes of eutrophication. These
conditions indicate a shallow embayment.
STRATIGRAPHIC NOTES
The fish local biozonation (Zajíc 2000, 2004) was
labelled by Lucas, Schneider & Cassinis (2006) as a
local ecostratigraphy of some Bohemian basins. Some
features of ecostratigraphy are unquestionable, and the
local character of the biozonation was always pointed
out. Some significant taxa (notably Elonichthys and
Sphaerolepis) are, however, found in various lake facies
of the Stephanian basins of the Bohemian Massif. Common remains of these taxa are known from the deposits
of the deep, shallow or paludal lakes. The occurrences of
these taxa did not depend on the predominant oxygenation of the water near the lake bottom either. Both oxic
and anoxic conditions show similar actinopterygian
associations.
The correlation between the Central and Western
Bohemian Basins and the Krkono‰e Piedmont Basin
shows differences from the conception of Roscher &
Schneider (2005; Fig. 2) in my opinion. The Middle
Semily Formation (the PlouÏnice Lake) is well correlable with the lower part of the Línû Formation (Klobuky
and Zdûtín Lakes) on the basis of both sedimentology
and bio/eco zonation.
SOUHRN
Je podán kompletní seznam fauny svrchnokarbonsk˘ch
jezerních uloÏenin podkrkono‰ské pánve. Lokality a vrty
s faunou jsou na základû sedimentárních facií a fauny rozdûleny do dvou hlavních oblastí a dvou podoblastí. Je diskutována stratigrafie a mezipánevní korelace.
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