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zde - EU hrou
Horník Matěj: Evropská identita u politických představitelů –
případová studie České republiky
,
Húšt avová Lucia: Odvody na veřejné zdravotní pojištění
koordinované právem Evropské unie
Ivanov Vladimir: Politické vztahy Ruska a Evropské unie
Kný Daniel: Referenda o „Evropské ústavní smlouvě“: evropská
identita jako perspektiva zkoumání
Nežiková Terézia: Teoretická reflexe integrace Islandu do Evropské
unie: neofunkcionalismus a liberální intergovernmentalismus
Pavelka Tomáš: Arbitralita protisoutěžních dohod v právu
Evropské unie
Pittner Radoslav: Parlamentná kontrola vlády v oblasti
európskych záležitostí (prípadová štúdia NRSR)
Sladičeková Eva: Politika štátov Európskej únie voči imigrácii
z tretích krajín po roku 2000: prípad Švédska, Nemecka a Talianska
Voborníková Tereza: Regulace v zemědělství – aplikace
na trh s mlékem
Zábražná Adela: Premena menovej politiky ECB v dôsledku
finančnej a dlhovej krízy
Ročník 1.
1/2013
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LABORATOŘ EVROPSKÉ UNIE
Grulichová Zuzana: Změna role předsednictví po Lisabonské
smlouvě na příkladu Španělska a Belgie
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Graf 1: Zastoupení rĤzných druhĤ logik
jednání v DPS
21%
25%
18%
Logika podmínČnosti
(17)
Logika vhodnosti (33)
36%
Logika výhodnosti
(23)
PĜi bližším zkoumání se ukazuje, že vČtšina výrazĤ spojených
s logikou vhodnosti (související s hodnotami, idejemi, normami, pravidly, principy) a s logikou argumentace (dialog, konzultace, nalezení
konsensu, spoleþná jednání, negociace) se nacházejí v clusterech
v první tĜetinČ textu Dohody – zejm. v preambuli, hlavách I, II, IV, V,
VII, VIII, XI. Logika výhodnosti (výrazy související se zájmy, užitkem,
výhodami, prospČšností) je využívána ménČ þasto a je „roztroušena“
v celém textu dokumentu. Logika podmínČnosti výraznČ pĜevažuje
v poslední tĜetinČ textu Dohody – v závČreþném aktu a spoleþných prohlášeních.
V první tĜetinČ DPS se projevuje symbolická dimenze smlouvy,
oba aktéĜi zdĤrazĖují význam spoleþných hodnot, historických souvislostí, konvergence identit; hlavním cílem je deklarováno sbližování,
zaþlenČní Ruska zpČt do evropské rodiny. Takový vztah mĤžeme považovat za silnČ konstruktivistický – ideje a hodnoty hrají velkou roli ve
formování zahraniþnČ-politického chování obou stran; stabilita, prosperita a intenzita spolupráce se budou odvíjet od kompatibility identit
aktérĤ, které patĜí do spoleþného, evropského civilizaþního rámce.
V poslední, „interpretaþní“ tĜetinČ je více patrný racionalistický
postoj EU, která sleduje prosazení dvou pro sebe klíþových zájmĤ:
(1) zajištČní bezpeþného a sociálnČ stabilního prostoru na svých východních hranicích (zavedení demokracie, vlády práva, prosazení reforem státní správy), (2) zabezpeþení pĜístupu na perspektivní (a nenasycený) ruský trh (ekonomické reformy, liberalizace, zvýšení životní
úrovnČ obyvatel). Pro dosažení tČchto cílĤ neváhá využít své dominantní pozice ve vztahu, „úkolovat“ druhou stranu a podmiĖovat další úroveĖ spolupráce úspČšným naplnČním tČchto úkolĤ. Odpovídá tomu
55
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SUiYDWUåQtHNRQRPLN\YãHPLVWiW\ÄLGHRYČSRUDåHQpKR³VRFLDOLVWLFNp
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SURVWRUXãtĜLWMDNMLQDNQHåYHIRUPiWXK\EDWHO±Y\NRQDYDWHOQHERXþL
WHO±åiNDSRGPLĖRYDWGDOãtVSROXSUiFLVWČPLWRVWiW\EH]SRGPtQHþQêP
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strategie byla úþinná v pĜípadČ zemí, kterým EU v dalším kroku nabídla
plnohodnotné þlenství a relativnČ úþinná v pĜípadČ ostatních státĤ bývalého východního bloku, v Rusku tento pĜístup nepadl na úrodnou pĤdu.
DPS posloužila kvalitním základem pro budování vztahĤ a byla silným
impulzem pro zahájení spolupráce, nicménČ sama o sobČ nemohla být
dostateþným prostĜedkem ke komplexní regulaci vztahĤ tak významných svČtových aktérĤ. NeúspČšné snahy o její doplnČní, revizi
a frustrace s tím související vedlo partnery k postupnému pĜijetí ménČ
normativního a více racionalistického postoje vĤþi sobČ. EU a Rusko se
postupnČ odvracejí od dlouhé a nároþné cesty hledání spoleþných hodnot, místo toho se zamČĜují na utilitaristické hledání spoleþných zájmĤ
a politiku quid pro quo.
3. Spoleþná strategie EU vĤþi Rusku (SSEU)
Hned na první pohled je patrný nesoumČrnČ velký poþet kódovaných výrazĤ v pomČru k objemu dokumentu – celkem jsem kódoval
83 výrazĤ v dokumentu þítajícím pouhých 5 387 slov. Na každých
65 slov v prĤmČru pĜipadá jeden výraz, což je 4,6krát vČtší frekvence
používání jednotlivých logik jednání v porovnání s DPS, kde tento pomČr þinil 299 slov na jeden nalezený výraz. Tak velkou koncentraci
sledovaných výrazĤ vysvČtluji vysokou mírou obecnosti dokumentu
– Strategie na velmi omezeném prostoru formuluje velmi širokou škálu
þinností, cílĤ, zámČrĤ, nástrojĤ, postojĤ, návrhĤ, které pokrývají témČĜ
všechny možné dimenze spolupráce (politická, ekonomická, bezpeþnostní, sociální).
Graf 2: Zastoupení rĤzných druhĤ logiky
jednání ve Spoleþné strategii
24%
Logika podmínČnosti
(30)
36%
Logika vhodnosti (18)
18%
22%
Logika výhodnosti (15)
57
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Graf 3: Zastoupení rĤzných druhĤ logiky
jednání ve StĜednČdobé strategii
8%
20%
25%
47%
Logika podmínČnosti
(4)
Logika vhodnosti (12)
Logika podmínČnosti, hojnČ používána v pĜedchozích dvou dokumentech, naopak témČĜ chybí. VysvČtluji to tím, že v pĜedchozích
dokumentech, a zejména v SSEU, tento druh logiky jednání byl nejþastČji používán v souvislosti s direktivními Ĝeþovými akty nebo v rámci
prosazování dominantní pozice EU ve vztahu (hybatel, uþitel). Jelikož
leitmotivem politického vzkazu SSRF je rovnost a vyváženost, použití
logiky podmínČnosti se jeví jako neúþelné/rozporné. Užívání výrazĤ
spojených s logikou vhodnosti (související s konstruktivistickým pĜístupem) a logikou argumentace se pohybuje ve stejných hodnotách jako
v pĜípadČ SSEU, ale ani dohromady tyto dvČ kategorie nedosahují þetnosti použití výrazĤ logiky výhodnosti.
Vzhledem k presumpci o pĜetrvání normativisticky orientovaného chování EU a novČ korigovanému, silnČ racionalistickému postoji
Ruska, lze vztah v dané fázi umístit do 2. kvadrantu matice kombinací
racionalistické a konstruktivistické optiky. Vztahy jsou tedy nejlépe
charakterizovány optikou slabého konstruktivismu.
Na základČ analýzy StĜednČdobé strategie lze vyvrátit hypotézu kontinuity ustáleného rámce dialogu, ve kterém EU zaujímá (v DPS)
a udržuje (v SSEU) svou dominantní pozici ve vztahu. Svou ráznou,
reaktivnČ-odmítavou povahou, SSRF pĜedurþil neúspČšnost pokusu EU
o vybudování vztahu na základČ usmČrĖujících Ĝeþových aktĤ a nastolení pomČru hybatel–vykonavatel.
V analýze jsem poukázal na „utilitaristický obrat“ v ruském chápání partnerství. Jako odpovČć na evropské pojetí Ruska jako objektu
politiky transplantace svého normativního systému, RF otevĜenČ vyjadĜuje svĤj instrumentální pĜístup ke spolupráci, tj. vnímání EU jako
zdroje pro vlastní modernizaci a þerpání výhod. Svým zpĤsobem se
jedná o tČžko pĜekonatelný bod zvratu, kdy neschopnost nebo obtížnost
60
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ISBN: 978-80-245-1940-1
60 LET

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