Mechanizace zemědělství - Katedra zemědělských strojů

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Mechanizace zemědělství - Katedra zemědělských strojů
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Štatistický parameter
Stredná hodnota
Chyba strednej hodnoty
Medián
Smerodajná odchýlka
Rozptyl výberu
aƉŝĐĂƚŽƐƛ
aŝŬŵŽƐƛ
Minimálna hodnota
Maximálna hodnota
^ƷēĞƚ
WŽēĞƚ͕ŬƐ
<ŽĞĨŝĐŝĞŶƚǀĂƌŝĄĐŝĞ͕й
Hodnoty emisií CO2, Pmol.m-2.s-1
pred spracovaním pôdy
po spracovaní pôdy
5.445
5.416
0.172
0.157
5.64
5.145
0.687
1.354
0.472
1.834
-0.907
4.881
-0.542
1.763
4.08
3.44
6.26
11.36
87.12
400.75
16
74
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50
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TILLAGE AND SOIL MOISTURE IN VINEYARD
INTERROWS WHEN USING AVAILABLE FARM MECHANIZATION
BARBORA BADALÍKOVÁ1-$1ý(59,1.$2
Agricultural Research, Ltd. Troubsko, Czech Republic
2
0HQGHO8QLYHUVLW\LQ%UQR'HSDUWHPHQWRI$JULFXOWXUH)RRGDQG(QYLURQPHQWDO
(QJLQHHULQJ%UQR&]HFK5HSXEOLF
1
Abstract:
Possibilities of vineyard interrow tillage and application of crushed grapevine chips
ZHUHVWXGLHGLQWZRORFDOLWLHVZLWKGLIIHUHQWVRLOFRQGLWLRQVLQäDEþLFHDQG9HONp%tORYLFH
(Czech Republic) within the period of 2008 – 2010. Altogether three experimental variants
were analysed from the viewpoint of their effects on water retention and the content of soil
moisture. The obtained results indicate that variants with organic material either
incorporated into the soil or used as mulching material retained more soil moisture than
control (i.e. without organic matter). This means that the incorporation of crushed
grapevine chips into the soil increases its infiltration capacity and improves the retention of
soil moisture for a longer time interval.
Keywords: soil moisture, grapevine chips, soil tillage
INTRODUCTION
As far as the water content is concerned, the method of tillage is very important
because it contributes to the establishment of either positive or negative soil water regime.
Both infiltration and antigravitation movement of water in soil can be regulated by changes
in or modificaton of the soil environment so that it is possible to control the overall soil
water regime. Although a deeper tillage reduces surface runoff in the spring season and
assures higher water reserves in soil, it also reduces the reserve of productive water and
this shows a negative effect on growth and development of plants during periods of
reduced precipitations and/or draught. By tillage we can therefore influence the soil water
regime, i.e. not only its infiltration but also the redistribution and preservation of wataer
ZLWKLQ WKH VRLO SURILOH ,Q WKLV ZD\ LW Ls also possible to influence the soil drainage
%DGDOtNRYi +UXEê 6R IRU H[DPSOH Matula (2003) found out that tillage plaid a
siginificant role in changes of hydrophysical soil properties and, above all, in the saturated
hydraulic conductivity (Ksat RI WKH SORXJKLQJ OD\HU ,Q YLWLFXOWXUH VRLO DQG ZHDWKHU
conditions principially influence all systems of soil cultivation. The basic objective of tillage
operations is to maintain an optimum level of soil moisture on the one hand and a good
supply of DOOQXWULHQWVWRSODQWVRQWKHRWKHU=HPiQHN%XUJ7KLVPHDQVWKDWDOO
cultivation measures are performed above all with the aim to kill and liquidate weeds and
the interrupt soil capilarity by disruption of the soil surface layer.
As already mentioned by many authors, it is well-known that the reserve of
productive water is dependent on the content of organic matter in soil because it has a
high retention capacity and can retain water for longer time intervals. This means that it is
quite necessary to process and recycle all residues of organic matter. At present, there
are various methods of crushing and mulching of woody residues, which can either remain
on the soil surface or be incorporated into the top layer of the soil horizon,QWKLVZDy it is
therefore possible to improve the water-binding capacity of soil and to alleviate the
densification and compaction of subsoil. The incorporation of grapevine chips into the soil
is one of possible methods how to supply organic matter into soil and how to maintain soil
KXPLGLW\IRUWKHSRVVLEO\ORQJHVWWLPHLQWHUYDOVDERYHDOOLQSHULRGVRIGUDXJKW%DGDOtNRYi
ýHUYLQND 7KHUH DUH QRW WRR PDQ\ SRVVLELOLWLHV KRZ WR XVH ZDVWH ZRRG LH
grapevines GURP YLQH\DUGV LQ D PHDQLQJIXO ZD\ ,Q WKH SDVt, the most usual method of
grapevine treatment was to remove it from interows and burn it in vain outside the
51
MHFKDQL]DFH]HPČGČOVWYt - =YOiãWQtY\GiQt
YLQH\DUG 6RXþHN $W SUHVHQW WKH PRVW IUHTXHQW PHWKRG RI FDQH WUHDWPHQW LV LWV
crushing directly in interrows and recyclation either as mulching material or as a source of
RUJDQLF PDWWHU ZKLFK LV LQFRUSRUDWHG LQWR WKHWRS OD\HU RI VRLO ,W LVNQRZQ WKDW DIWHU WZR
years, this incorporation is beneficial and increases the stability of soil texture even after
the movement of mulching machiner\LQWKHYLQH\DUG,QWKLVZD\LWLVWKHUHIRUHSRVVLEOHWR
increase the retention capacity of soil. The incorporation of any kind of organic matter into
soil thus enables not only to maintain the crumbly soil texture with a great number of
valuable aggregations but also to improve the retention capacity due to the formation of
numerous pores and micropores (Duvigneaud, 1998; Burg =HPiQHN
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporated organic material
(i.e. crushed woody canes) on soil humidity.
MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
Within the period of 2008 – 2010, possibilities of soil cultivation in vineyards
situated in wine-JURZLQJPXQLFLSDOLWLHVäDEþLFHDQG9HONp%tORYLFH&]HFK5HSXELFZHUH
investigated with regard to incorporation of cane woody chips into the soil surface layer.
Altogether three experimental variants were established in each locality to evaluate the
effect of grapevine chips on physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. The
content of water in soil was assessed and evaluated in all three experimental variants.
([SHULPHQWDOYDULDQWV
Variant 1 – Control, without incorporation of woody grapevine chips
Variant 2 – ,QFRUSRUDWLRQRIFUXVKHGgrapevine (chips) into the depth of 0.10 m
Variant 3 – Crushed grapevines (chips) + grass left on the soil surface as mulching
material
The minimum total length of each variant was 100 m; their width corresponded with the
distance between individual rows.
,QERWKORFDOLWLHVVRLOIRUWKHDVVHVPHQWRILWVEDVLFSURSHUWLHVZDs sampled from
two depths, viz. 0 – 0.15 and 0.10 – P6DPSOHVIRUWKHHVWLPDWLRQRIVRLOKXPLGLW\
were taken from three depths, viz 0 – 0.10, 0.10 – 0.20 and 0.20 – 0.30 m. All samplings
were performed at the beginning and to the end of the growing season.
6RLOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWZDVHVWLPDWHGLQORRVHVDPSOHVXVLQJWKHFRQYHQWLRQDOJUDYLPHWULF
PHWKRG 6RLO VDPSOHV ZHUH SODFHG LQWR D GHVVLFDWRU DQG ZHLJKHG LQ IUHVK FRQGLWLRQ
Thereafter they were dried at 105 0C for 8 hours, cooled and weighed again. The weight
percentage of water content was calculated using weights of fresh and dry soil samples.
Charcteristics of both experimental localities
The wine-growing municipality 9HONp %tORYLFH is situated in the maize-growing
region and belongs into the warm and dry climatic region. The altitude is up to 200 m and
soils are classified as chenozem developed on the loessial subsoil, with loam to clay-loam
texture and a marked proportion of dust particles.
The wine-growing municipality äDEþLFH is also situated in the maize-growing region
and belongs into the warm and dry climatic region. The altitude here is also up to 200 m
and soils are classified as alluvial fluvisols with loam to sand-loam texture. .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
After winter pruning, the woody grapevines can be liquidated using a number of
YDULRXVWHFKQROJLHV5HPRYHGFDQHVFDQEHFUXVKHGFKLSSHGRUEDOHG=HPiQHN Burg,
2010); after the treatment they are usually carried away. These technologies, however,
are mostly rather expensive and result in the export and subsequent defficiency of
valuable organic matter. The incorporation of organic matter in the form of cane chips
increases the value of soil structure coefficient and this then results in a reduced risk of
XQGHVLUDEOHVRLOFRPSDFWLRQ%DGDOtNRYi ýHUYLQND
52
Data about soil recorded in individual variants of grapevine recycling in the locality
9HONp %tORYLFH DUH SUHVHQWHG LQ 7DE $V RQH FDQ VHH WKHUH ZDV D PRYHPHQW RI VRLO
within its profile and there were also changes in idnvidual variants at the beginning and to
the end of the growing season. An increase in soil moisture in the middle and bottom soil
layer was observed in Variant 2 while in the control Variant 1 it was increased in near the
surface. This was caused by the mulch layer, which protected the soil against too
intensive drying off (above all at the beginning of the growing season). Differences
between individual years were affected by the annual course of weather.
,Q WKH ORFDOLW\ äDEþLFH 7DE WKH GLIIHUHQFHV LQ VRLO KXPLGLW\ UHFRUGHG LQ
individual variants were rather similar. Decreased contents of soil humidity were observed
in upper soil layers in all experimental variants; this was caused above all by the sandloam texture of soil. Also the content of soil humidity was lower than in 9HONp%tORYLFH,Q
2009, particularly low precipitations were manifested also in a decrease in soil humidity,
ZKLFKGURSSHGEHORZYROXPHLQWKHVXUIDFHVRLOOD\HULQ9DULDQWVDQG,QFRQWUol
(Variant 1), a decrease in soil humidity was recorded in both experimental localities.
Table 1 – 6RLOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHORFDOLW\9HONp%tORYLFH– 2010)
2008
Variant
depth
(m)
2009
Beginning of the
(QGRIWKH
Beginning of the
(QGRIWKH
Beginning of the
(QGRIWKH
growing season growing season growing season growing season growing season growing season
weight %
1
2
3
0.0-0.10
0.10-0.20
0.20-0.30
0.0-0.10
0.10-0.20
0.20-0.30
0.0-0.10
0.10-0.20
0.20-0.30
2010
15.12
18.37
16.80
15.33
17.55
weight %
16.13
15.01
17.89
19.25
19.55
16.25
17.65
weight %
10.65
7.72
11.80
12.08
8.13
9.87
10.23
7.78
10.02
13.31
11.30
16.19
16.38
16.93
19.17
16.76
18.22
19.68
20.78
22.20
20.16
19.78
19.90
20.23
Table 2 – 6RLOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHORFDOLW\äDEþLFH– 2010)
2008
Variant
depth
(m)
2009
weight %
1
2
3
0.0-0.10
0.10-0.20
0.20-0.30
0.0-0.10
0.10-0.20
0.20-0.30
0.0-0.10
0.10-0.20
0.20-0.30
2010
Beginning of the
(QGRIWKH
Beginning of the
(QGRIWKH
Beginning of the
(QGRIWKH
growing season growing season growing season growing season growing season growing season
19.07
19.13
19.05
19.22
18.67
19.87
20.05
20.32
weight %
8.26
11.07
8.12
11.56
12.66
7.26
11.38
12.33
17.08
17.15
17.60
20.13
19.83
weight %
6.12
6.16
5.05
6.65
7.85
5.27
5.78
13.90
13.83
13.31
15.11
16.92
15.67
13.68
11.06
12.37
12.10
11.57
12.81
13.79
9.19
10.72
10.77
Trends of average contents of soil water in individual experimental variants in the
ORFDOLW\ 9HONp %tORYLFH DUH SUHVHQWHG LQ )LJ 7KH IORZOLQHV RI WKHVH WUHQGV ZLWK
regression equations indicate higher soil moisture contents in Variant 2 (i.e. with crushed
DQGLQFRUSRUDWHGFKLSV,QD,QZKLFKZDVH[WUHPHO\GU\KLJKHUYDOXHV
were observed in Variant 3 (with crushed grapevines mixed with grass), and in Variant 2.
,QWKHDEVROXWHO\KLJKHVWFRQWHQWVRIVRLOPRLVWXUHIRUWKHZKROHVWudy perioed were
UHFRUGHG ,Q WKH ORFDOLW\ äDEþLFH WKH IORZOLQHV VKRZHG D VLPLODU WUHQG EXW WKH DEVROXWH
YDOXHV ZHUH ORZHU WKDQ LQ 9HONp %tORYLFH )LJ 7KLV GLIIHUHQFH ZDV FDXVHG SDUWO\ E\
different soil types and partly also by the locality.
The course of trend flowlines was similar and the regression equations indicated in
Variants 2 and 3 similar contents of soil moisture. This can be explained by the fact that
incorporated grapevine chips function wirhin the soil profile as a source of organic matter
53
MHFKDQL]DFH]HPČGČOVWYt - =YOiãWQtY\GiQt
so that it enables a good infiltration and a long-term retention of water. Organic matter not
only shows a positive effect on the content or soil moisture but also on the resistency of
soil to compaction.
Variant 1: y = 8.073x2 - 30.84x + 38.81
R² = 1
25,00
Variant 2: y = 6.947x2 - 26.95x + 37.57
R² = 1
Variant 3: y = 5.624x2 - 21.53x + 32.77
R² = 1
weight %
20,00
15,00
10,00
1
5,00
2
3
Polyg. (1)
0,00
2008
2009
2010
Polyg. (2)
Polyg. (3)
weight %
Figure 1 – Trend of soil humidity content in individual years
and different experimental variants – 9HONp%tORYLFH
25,00
Variant 1: y = 7.472x2 - 32.59x + 43.30
R² = 1
20,00
Variant 2: y = 7.959x2 - 34.81x + 46.43
R² = 1
15,00
Variant 3: y = 8.772x2 - 38.74x + 50.11
R² = 1
10,00
1
2
3
5,00
Polyg. (1)
Polyg. (2)
0,00
Polyg. (3)
2008
2009
2010
Figure 2 – Trend of soil humidity content in individual years
and different experimental variants – äDEþLFH
+RUQ HW DO DQG /KRWVNê DOVR SRVWXODWHG D SRVLWLYH HIIHFW of presence of
organic matter in soils exposed to the compaction caused by the movement of heavy
machinery on the soil surface.
Use of machinery for the cultivation of vineyards is important not only with regard
to the extension of the age of vineyards but also from the viewpoint of maintenance of the
soil fertility and yielding capacity. Machinery for cultivation of interrows is used for weed
killing, application of mineral fertiisers and green manure, and destruction of the surface
crust (to improve the infiltration capacity of soil). This destruction can be done with skive
cultivators, disk stubble ploughs and/or rotary cultivators. Deep cultivation, soil loosening,
and aeration of soil horizon can be done with heavy blade cultivators and deep tillers.
Orgamic matter can be incorporated into the soil also by means of spade ploughs and and
URWDU\LQFRUSRUDWRUV=HPiQHN %XUJ,QWKVLFRQWH[WLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRVD\WKDWLWLV
54
LPSRUWDQWWRFKRRVHWKHULJKWPDFKLQHU\LQWKHULJKWWLPHRQO\LQWKLVZay it can be assured
that the soil environment will be destroyed for at least..
CONCLUSIONS
Results of these experiments enabled to evaluate effects of grapevine chips
LQFRUSRUDWLRQ RQ WKH SUHVHUYDWLRQ RI VRLO KXPLGLW\ ([SUHULPHQWV ZHUH SHUIRUPHG LQ WZR
localities with different soil conditions within the period of 2008 – (VWDEOLVKHGZHUH
altogether three variants (i.e. control, incorporation of organic matter into the soil, and its
applicaton on the soil surface). The obtained results indicated that Variants 2 and 3 with
incorporated organic matter and mulching, respectively, were able to retain more moisture
than control Variant 1 (i.e. without the application of grapevine chips). This means that
organic matter showed a positive effect on soil humidity in both experimental localities.
The incorporation of crushed grapevine enables a good infiltration of water into the soil
and its retention for a longer time interval.
$FNQRZOHGJPHQW7KHVHUHVXOWVZHUHREWDLQHGZLWKLQWKHIUDPHZRUNRIWKHSURMHFWQƒ4+
National Agency of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic.
References:
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VWUXNWXU\ SĤG\ SUR ~þHO ]DPH]HQt MHMtKR ]KXWQČQt 9LQDĜ – 6DGDĜ V - ,6%1
978-80-87091-06-7
%$'$/Ë.29È%ý(59,1.$-9\XåLWt]HPČGČOVNp WHFKQLN\YPH]LĜiGFtFKYLQLFDMHMt
YOLYQDSĤGQtVWUXNWXUX,Q7HFKQRIyUXP=ERUQtNYHGHFNêFKSUiF1LWUD65
s. 20-,6%1-80-552-0380-5
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%85* 3 =(0È1(. 3 7KH LQIOXHQFH RI FRPSRVW RQ RSWLPDOL]DWLRQ RI K\GURSK\VLFDO
characteristics of soils. ,Q&'3URFHHGLQJV,QWHUQDWLRQDOVFLHQWLILFFRQIHUHQFH1HZWUHQGV
LQ 'HVLJQ DQG 8WLOLVDWLRQ RI 0DFKLQHV LQ $JULFXOWXUH /DQGVFDSH 0DLQWHQDQFH DQG
(QYLURQPHQW3URWHFWLRQ, Praha, 2009, s.50-,6%1-80-213-1897-7
'89,*1($8'3(NRORJLFNiV\QWp]D. 2., 1998, Vyd. Praha Academia
+2515 )OHLJH K 3HWK 6 6RLO PDQDJHPHQW IRU VXVWDLQDELOLW\. Reiskirchen.
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0$78/$67KHLQIOXHQFHRIWLOODJHWUHDWPHQWVRQZDWHULQILOWUDWLRQLQWRVRLOSURILOH Plant
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=(0È1(. 3 %85* 3 9LQRKUDGQLFNi PHFKDQL]DFH 1.vyd. Olomouc, 2010, 220 s.
,6%1-80-87091--2
Contact address:
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Republic, [email protected]
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