grammar tidbits 5

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grammar tidbits 5
GRAMMAR TIDBITS – PART 5 (EXPLANATION)
1 FIVE THINGS TO REMEMBER
1) need to do something
2) promise to do something
3) plan to do something
4) must do someting (infinitiv bez to)
5) might do something (infinitiv bez to)
I need to go shopping. Potřebuju jít nakupovat.
I promise to come back early. Slibuji, že se vrátím brzy.
I plan to write Mary a letter. Plánuji napsat Mary dopis.
We must help them. Musíme jim pomoct.
It might be dangerous. Mohlo by to být nebezpečné.
2 NOTICE THE DIFFERENCE – after x then
- after znamená „po“, je to předložka, obvykle po ní následuje podstatné jméno (někdy slovesné, ve tvaru na -ing) nebo
zájmeno. Také to může znamenat „poté, co“, v tom případě za ním může následovat i věta.
Ann often plays tennis after school. Ann často hraje tenis po škole.
He became homeless after losing his job. Stal se bezdomovcem po ztrátě zaměstnání.
Her life changed after she met Tom. Její život se změnil poté, co potkala Toma.
- then znamená „potom“, je to příslovce, následuje po něm celá věta.
Put your toys back into the box and then put the box on the shelf.
Dej své hračky zpátky do krabice a potom tu krabici polož na poličku.
Při psaní souvislého vyprávění (A potom jsem šel... atd.) lze použít then nebo after that.
Then I went home. After that I went home. Potom / Poté jsem šel domů.
3 PHRASAL VERBS
1) watch out (look out) dát si pozor (Watch out! / Look out! There is a shark in the water! Pozor! Ve vodě je žralok!)
2) take care of postarat se o (Take care of your mother, Jim. Postarej se o svoji matku, Jime.)
3) switch on / off zapnout / vypnout (Switch the light on / off. Zapni / Vypni světlo. Stejné jako turn on / off).
4) run away utéct (He ran away from home. Utekl z domova.)
5) put up with something strpět něco (I won't put up with this. Tohle nestrpím.)
6) look up vyhledat ve slovníku (If you don't know the word, look it up. Pokud to slovo neznáš, vyhledej si ho.)
7) hang on počkat chvíli (Hang on a second! Počkej chvilku.)
8) come back vrátit se (When are you going to come back? Kdy se vrátíš?
9) go on dít se / pokračovat (What's going on? Co se děje? Go on, tell me more about it. Pokračuj, řekni mi o tom víc.)
10) get rid of something zbavit se něčeho (She wants to get rid of some old clothes. Chce se zbavit nějakého starého
oblečení.)
4 NO, NOT and NONE
not
- používá se jako zápor u sloves, přídavných jmen a příslovcí
Ellen does not speak English. Ellen nemluví anglicky.
I may be crazy, but I'm not stupid. Možná jsem blázen, ale nejsem hloupý.
"How did it go?" "Not well." „Jak to šlo?“ „Moc dobře ne.“
no
- používá se jako odpověď na otázku (opak yes) a jako zápor u podstatných jmen
"Do you speak French?" "No." „Mluvíš francouzsky?“ „Ne.“
She had no money. Neměla žádné peníze.
none
- znamená „žádný“, nestojí před podstatným jménem, ale samostatně. Časté je spojení none of
How many biscuits did she eat? None! Kolik sušenek snědla? Žádné!
None of them was there. Nikdo z nich tam nebyl.
5 AGO
Pokud uvádíme, před kolika dny, týdny, měsíci, roky atd. se něco stalo, používáme slovo ago.
Toto slovo se uvádí až na konci celého určení času (three days ago, five minutes ago).
GRAMMAR TIDBITS – PART 4 (PRACTICE)
1 Complete the following sentences with one word.
1 We need _____________________________ find new people to work in the kitchen.
2 Susan left an hour _____________________________.
3 I just couldn't put _____________________________ with the man smelling of whisky sitting next to me.
4 Gerard has not come _____________________________ from New York yet.
5 I plan _____________________________ make a trip to China in the winter.
6 He takes very good care _____________________________ his car.
7 Watch _____________________________! The car almost ran over you.
8 I managed to _____________________________ rid of him.
2 Translate
1 Navštívil jsem ho před pěti lety. ______________________________________________________________________
2 Potřebujeme pracovat společně. _____________________________________________________________________
3 Zapni ten počítač. _________________________________________________________________________________
4 Musím se jí omluvit. _______________________________________________________________________________
5 Možná že je nemocná (nepoužívejte maybe ani perhaps). _________________________________________________
6 Po obědě půjdu nakupovat. __________________________________________________________________________
7 Slibuji, že se vrátím brzy. ____________________________________________________________________________
8 Dal jsem si sprchu a potom jsem šel do postele. __________________________________________________________
3 Choose the correct option.
1 _____ on a minute. I'll call Jimmy.
2 Tom promised _____ back by three o'clock.
3 Look the word _____ for yourself in the dictionary.
4 Better run _____ immediately!
5 I've got _____ answer to my letter.
6 I want to hear your story. Go _____, please.
7 It might _____ today in the afternoon.
8 We must _____ there before them.
A. go
A. come
A. up
A. out
A. no
A. up
A. rain
A. get
B. switch
B. to come
B. out
B. off
B. not
B. out
B. to rain
B. to get
C. hang
C. coming
C. after
C. away
C. none
C. on
C. raining
C. getting
4 Answer the following questions. Use FULL SENTENCES.
1 What do you need to do today? _____________________________________________________________________
2 What are you planning to do? ______________________________________________________________________
3 When did you wake up? /use the word ago/ ___________________________________________________________
4 Do you take care of any person or animal? _____________________________________________________________
5 Complete the sentences with no, not or none.
1 This pencil is _____________________________ grey.
2 _____________________________ of them was there.
3 In our class, there is _____________________________ child more hard-working than Jack.
4 That's _____________________________ a very funny story.
5 A: How much sugar do you eat? B: _____________________________.
6 He had _____________________________ place to live.
7 I'm _____________________________ good enough for you.
8 There's _____________________________ reason to get angry.
6 Choose the correct option.
1 A few days after / then his eighteenth birthday, Tony left school
2 We arrived at the museum after / then a ten-minute walk.
3 I took a shower and after / then went to bed.
4 He died after / then working for 72 hours without sleep.
5 Tom was exhausted after / then his trip and it took him at least a week to recover from it.
6 Tom got his girlfriend's name tattooed on his arm, but after / then she left him.
7 They held him for a few hours and after / then let him go free.
8 And after / then I turned the TV off and went to sleep.

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